Тромбоэмболия легочной артерии: клинические рекомендации Европейского общества кардиологов (2014)


https://doi.org/10.18093/0869-0189-2015-25-6-649-684

Полный текст:


Аннотация

В данных Клинических рекомендациях суммированы все современные доказательства по диагностике и лечению тромбоэмболии легочной артерии (ТЭЛА). В отличие от предыдущей версии рекомендаций, в данном документе представлены упрощенные варианты клинических прогностических шкал, подробно рассмотрена стратификация риска летального исхода, включая промежуточные степени риска, представлены новые подходы к АКТ, в т. ч. системному тромболизису и катетерным методам лечения, терапии антагонистом витамина К, определено место новых пероральных антикоагулянтов в терапии ТЭЛА.


Об авторе

Редакционная статья

Россия


Список литературы

1. Heit J.A. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the community. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2008; 28 (3): 370–372.

2. Cohen A.T., Agnelli G., Anderson F.A. et al. Venous throm boembolism (VTE) in Europe. The number of VTE events and associated morbidity and mortality. Thromb. Haemost. 2007; 98 (4): 756–764.

3. Klok F.A., van Kralingen K.W., van Dijk A.P. et al. Quality of life in longterm survivors of acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2010; 138 (6): 1432–1440.

4. Bonderman D., Wilkens H., Wakounig S. et al. Risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur. Respir. J. 2009; 33 (2): 325–331.

5. Condliffe R., Kiely D.G., Gibbs J.S. et al. Prognostic and aetiological factors in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur. Respir. J. 2009; 33 (2): 332–338.

6. Fanikos J., Piazza G., Zayaruzny M., Goldhaber S.Z. Long term complications of medical patients with hospital acquired venous thromboembolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 102 (4): 688–693.

7. Stein P.D., Henry J.W. Prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism among patients in a general hospital and at autop sy. Chest. 1995; 108 (4): 978–981.

8. Heit J.A. III, Silverstein M.D., Mohr D.N. et al. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a populationbased casecontrol study. Arch. Intern. Med. 2000; 160 (6): 809–815.

9. Anderson F.A. Jr, Spencer F.A. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003; 107 (23, Suppl. 1): I9–I16.

10. Bisst. T., Brandão L.R., Kahr W.H. et al. Clinical features and outcome of pulmonary embolism in children. Br. J. Haematol. 2008; 142 (5): 808–818.

11. Andrew M., David M., Adams M. et al. Venous thromboembolic complications (VTE) in children: first analyses of the Canadian Registry of VTE. Blood. 1994; 83 (5): 1251–1257.

12. Stein P.D., Kayali F., Olson R.E. Incidence of venous thromboembolism in infants and children: data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. J. Pediatr. 2004; 145 (4): 563–565.

13. van Ommen C.H., Heijboer H., Büller H.R. et al. Venous thromboembolism in childhood: a prospective twoyear registry in The Netherlands. J. Pediatr. 2001; 139 (5): 676–681.

14. Kearon C., Akl E.A. Duration of anticoagulant therapy for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Blood. 2014; 123 (12): 1794–1801.

15. Rogers M.A., Levine D.A., Blumberg N. et al. Triggers of hospitalization for venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2012; 125 (17): 2092–2099.

16. Ku G.H., White R.H., Chew H.K. et al. Venous throm boembolism in patients with acute leukemia: incidence, risk factors, and effect on survival. Blood. 2009; 113 (17): 3911–3917.

17. Chew H.K., Wun T., Harvey D. et al. Incidence of venous thromboembolism and its effect on survival among patients with common cancers. Arch. Intern. Med. 2006; 166 (4): 458–464.

18. Blom J.W., Doggen C.J., Osanto S., Rosendaal F.R. Malignancies, prothrombotic mutations, and the risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA. 2005; 293 (6): 715–722.

19. Timp J.F., Braekkan S.K., Versteeg H.H., Cannegieter S.C. Epidemiology of cancerassociated venous thrombosis. Blood. 2013; 122 (10): 1712–1723.

20. Gussoni G., Frasson S., La Regina M. et al. Threemonth mortality rate and clinical predictors in patients with venous thromboembolism and cancer. Findings from the RIETE registry. Thromb. Res. 2013; 131 (1): 24–30.

21. BlancoMolina A., Rota L.L., Di Micco P. et al. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, postpartum or during contraceptive use. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 103 (2): 306–311.

22. BlancoMolina A., TrujilloSantos J., Tirado R. et al. Venous thromboembolism in women using hormonal contraceptives. Findings from the RIETE Registry. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 101 (3): 478–482.

23. Pomp E.R., Lenselink A.M., Rosendaal F.R., Doggen C.J. Pregnancy, the postpartum period and prothrombotic defects: risk of venous thrombosis in the MEGA study. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 6 (4): 632–637.

24. Henriksson P., Westerlund E., Wallén H. et al. Incidence of pulmonary and venous thromboembolism in pregnancies after in vitro fertilisation: cross sectional study. Br. Med. J. 2013; 346: e8632.

25. Sweetland S., Beral V., Balkwill A. et al. Venous thromboembolism risk in relation to use of different types of post menopausal hormone therapy in a large prospective study. Thromb. Haemost. 2012; 10 (11): 2277–2286.

26. Clayton T.C., Gaskin M., Meade T.W. Recent respiratory infection and risk of venous thromboembolism: casecontrol study through a general practice database. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2011; 40 (3): 819–827.

27. Smeeth L., Cook C., Thomas S. et al. Risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after acute infection in a community setting. Lancet. 2006; 367 (9516): 1075–1079.

28. Khorana A.A., Kuderer N.M., Culakova E. et al. Development and validation of a predictive model for chemotherapyassociated thrombosis. Blood. 2008; 111 (10): 4902–4907.

29. Dijk F.N., Curtin J., Lord D., Fitzgerald D.A. Pulmonary embolismin children. Paediatr. Respir. Rev. 2012; 13 (2): 112–122.

30. Piazza G., Goldhaber S.Z. Venous thromboembolism and atherothrombosis: an integrated approach. Circulation. 2010; 121 (19): 2146–2150.

31. Severinsen M.T., Kristensen S.R., Johnsen S.P. et al. Smoking and venous thromboembolism: a Danish followup study. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 7 (8): 1297–1303.

32. Steffen L.M., Cushman M., Peacock J.M. et al. Metabolic syndrome and risk of venous thromboembolism: Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 7 (5): 746–751.

33. Ageno W., Becattini C., Brighton T. et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and venous thromboembolism: a metaanalysis. Circulation. 2008; 117 (1): 93–102.

34. Montecucco F., Mach F. Should we focus on ≪venous vulnerability≫ instead of ≪plaque vulnerability≫ in symptomatic atherosclerotic patients? Thromb. Haemost. 2011; 106 (6): 995–996.

35. Piazza G., Goldhaber S.Z., Lessard D.M. et al. Venous thromboembolism in patients with symptomatic atheroscle rosis. Thromb. Haemost. 2011; 106 (6): 1095–1102.

36. Gresele P., Momi S., Migliacci R. Endothelium, veno usthromboembolism and ischaemic cardiovascular events. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 103 (1): 56–61.

37. Fox E.A., Kahn S.R. The relationship between inflammation and venous thrombosis. A systematic review of clinical studies. Thromb. Haemost. 2005; 94 (2): 362–365.

38. Enga K.F., Braekkan S.K., HansenKrone I.J. et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromso Study. Thromb. Haemost. 2012; 10 (10): 2068–2074.

39. Wattanakit K., Lutsey P.L., Bell E.J. et al. Association between cardiovascular disease risk factors and occurrence of venous thromboembolism. A timedependent analysis. Thromb. Haemost. 2012; 108 (3): 508–515.

40. Sørensen H.T., HorvathPuho E., Lash T.L. et al. Heart disease may be a risk factor for pulmonary embolism without peripheral deep venous thrombosis. Circulation. 2011; 124 (13): 1435–1441.

41. Prandoni P., Pesavento R., Sorensen H.T. et al. Prevalence of heart diseases in patients with pulmonary embolism with and without peripheral venous thrombosis: findings from a crosssectional survey. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 2009; 20 (5): 470–473.

42. Sørensen H.T., HorvathPuho E., Pedersen L. et al. Venous thromboembolism and subsequent hospitalisation due to acute arterial cardiovascular events: a 20year cohort study. Lancet. 2007; 370 (9601): 1773–1779.

43. Kakkar V.V., Howe C.T., Flanc C., Clarke M.B. Natural history of postoperative deepvein thrombosis. Lancet. 1969; 2 (7614): 230–232.

44. Dalen J.E. Pulmonary embolism: what have we learned since Virchow? Natural history, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. Chest. 2002; 122 (4): 1440–1456.

45. Kearon C. Natural history of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003; 107 (23, Suppl. 1): I22–I30.

46. Aujesky D., Obrosky D.S., Stone R.A. et al. Aprediction rule to identify lowrisk patients with pulmonary embolism. Arch. Intern. Med. 2006; 166 (2): 169–175.

47. Laporte S., Mismetti P., Décousus H. et al. Clinical predictors for fatal pulmonary embolism in 15,520 patients with venous thromboembolism: findings from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica venosa (RIETE) Registry. Circulation. 2008; 117 (13): 1711–1716.

48. Goldhaber S.Z., Visani L., De Rosa M. Acute pulmonary embolism: clinical outcomes in the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER). Lancet. 1999; 353 (9162): 1386–1389.

49. Miniati M., Monti S., Bottai M. et al. Survival and restoration of pulmonary perfusion in a longterm followup of patients after acute pulmonary embolism. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006; 85 (5): 253–262.

50. Cosmi B., Nijkeuter M., Valentino M. et al. Residual embolion lung perfusion scan or multidetector computed tomography after a first episode of acute pulmonary embolism. Intern. Emerg. Med. 2011; 6 (6): 521–528.

51. Sanchez O., Helley D., Couchon S. et al. Perfusion defects after pulmonary embolism: risk factors and clinical significance. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 8 (6): 1248–1255.

52. Becattini C., Agnelli G., Pesavento R. et al. Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after a first episode of pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2006; 130 (1): 172–175.

53. Pengo V., Lensing A.W., Prins M.H. et al. Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 350 (22): 2257–2264.

54. Kyrle P.A., Rosendaal F.R., Eichinger S. Risk assessment for recurrent venous thrombosis. Lancet. 2010; 376 (9757): 2032–2039.

55. Zhu T., Martinez I., Emmerich J. Venous thromboembolism: risk factors for recurrence. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2009; 29 (3): 298–310.

56. Heit J.A. Predicting the risk of venous thromboembolism recurrence. Am. J. Hematol. 2012; 87 (Suppl. 1): S63–S67.

57. Heit J.A., Lahr B.D., Petterson T.M. et al. Heparin and war farin anticoagulation intensity as predictors of recurrence after deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism: a populationbased cohort study. Blood. 2011; 118 (18): 4992–4999.

58. Iorio A., Kearon C., Filippucci E. et al. Risk of recurrence after a first episode of symptomatic venous thromboembolism provoked by a transient risk factor: a systematic review. Arch. Intern. Med. 2010; 170 (19): 1710–1716.

59. Douketis J., Tosetto A., Marcucci M. et al. Risk of recurrence after venous thromboembolism in men and women: patient level metaanalysis. Br. Med. J. 2011; 342: d813.

60. Lijfering W.M., Veeger N.J., Middeldorp S. et al. Alower risk of recurrent venous thrombosis inwomencompared with men is explained by sexspecific risk factors at time of first venous thrombosis in thrombophilic families. Blood. 2009; 114 (10): 2031–2036.

61. Cosmi B., Legnani C., Tosetto A. et al. Usefulness of repeated Ddimer testing after stopping anticoagulation for a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism: the PROLONG II prospective study. Blood. 2010; 115 (3): 481–488.

62. Rodger M.A., Kahn S.R., Wells PS. et al. Identifying unpro voked thromboembolism patients at low risk for recurrene who can discontinue anticoagulant therapy. Can. Med. Ass. J. 2008; 179 (5): 417–426.

63. Eichinger S., Minar E., Bialonczyk C. et al. Ddimer levels and risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism. JAMA. 2003; 290 (8): 1071–1074.

64. Coppens M., Reijnders J.H., Middeldorp S. et al. Testing for inherited thrombophilia does not reduce the recurrence of venous thrombosis. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 6 (9): 1474–1477.

65. Kearon C., Julian J.A., Kovacs M.J. et al. Influence of thrombophilia on risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism while on warfarin: results from a randomized trial. Blood. 2008; 112 (12): 4432–4436.

66. McIntyre K.M., Sasahara A.A. The hemodynamic response to pulmonaryembolism in patients without prior cardiopulmonary disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1971; 28 (3): 288–294.

67. Smulders Y.M. Pathophysiology and treatment of haemody namic instability in acute pulmonary embolism: the pivotal role of pulmonary vasoconstriction. Cardiovasc. Res. 2000; 48 (1): 23–33.

68. Delcroix M., Mélot C, Lejeune P. et al. Effects of vasodilators on gas exchange in acute canine embolic pulmonary hypertension. Anesthesiology. 1990; 72 (1): 77–84.

69. Huet Y., BrunBuisson C., Lemaire F. et al. Cardiopulmonary effects of ketanserin infusion in human pulmonary embolism. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1987; 135 (1): 114–117.

70. Lankhaar J.W., Westerhof N., Faes T.J. et al. Quantification of right ventricular afterload in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2006; 291 (4): H1731–H1737.

71. Molloy W.D., Lee K.Y., Girling L. et al. Treatment of shock in a canine model of pulmonary embolism. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1984; 130 (5): 870–874.

72. Marcus J.T., Gan C.T., Zwanenburg J.J. et al. Interventricular mechanical asynchrony in pulmonary arterial hypertension: lefttoright delay in peak shortening is related to right ventricular overload and left ventricular underfilling. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2008; 51 (7): 750–757.

73. Mauritz G.J., Marcus J.T., Westerhof N. et al. Prolonged right ventricular postsystolic isovolumic period in pulmonary arterial hypertension is not a reflection of diastolic dysfunction. Heart. 2011; 97 (6): 473–478.

74. Begieneman M.P., van de Goot F.R., van der Bilt I.A. et al. Pulmonary embolism causes endomyocarditis in the human heart. Heart. 2008; 94 (4): 450–456.

75. Hull R.D., Raskob G.E., Hirsh J. et al. Continuous intravenous heparin compared with intermittent subcutaneous heparin in the initial treatment of proximalvein thrombosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1986; 315 (18): 1109–1114.

76. Lankeit M., Jiménez D., Kostrubiec M. et al. Predictive value of the highsensitivity troponin T assay and the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a prospective validation study. Circulation. 2011; 124 (24): 2716–2724.

77. Lankeit M., Kempf T., Dellas C. et al. Growth differentiation factor15 for prognostic assessment of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008; 177 (9): 1018–1025.

78. Mehta N.J., Jani K., Khan I.A. Clinical usefulness and prognostic value of elevated cardiac troponin I levels in acute pulmonary embolism. Am. Heart J. 2003; 145 (5): 821–825.

79. Burrowes K.S., Clark A.R., Tawhai M.H. Blood. flow redistribution and ventilationperfusion mismatch during embolic pulmonary arterial occlusion. Pulm. Circ. 2011; 1 (3): 365–376.

80. Konstantinides S., Geibel A., Kasper W. et al. Patent foramen ovale is an important predictor of adverse outcome in patients with major pulmonary embolism (see comments). Circulation. 1998; 97 (19): 1946–1951.

81. Miniati M., Prediletto R., Formichi B. et al. Accuracy of clinical assessment in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 159 (3): 864–871.

82. Pollack C.V., Schreiber D., Goldhaber S.Z. et al. Clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: initial report of EMPEROR (Multicenter

83. Emergency Medicine Pulmonary Embolism in the Real World Registry). J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2011; 57 (6): 700–706.

84. Wells P.S., Ginsberg J.S., Anderson D.R. et al. Use of a clinical model for safe management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Ann. Intern. Med. 1998; 129 (12): 997–1005.

85. Thames M.D., Alpert J.S., Dalen J.E. Syncope in patients with pulmonary embolism. JAMA. 1977; 238 (23): 2509–2511.

86. Stein P.D., Henry J.W. Clinical characteristics of patients with acute pulmonary embolism stratified according to their presenting syndromes. Chest. 1997; 112 (4): 974–979.

87. White R.H. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003; 107 (23, Suppl. 1): I4–I8.

88. Rodger M.A., Carrier M., Jones G.N. et al. Diagnostic value of arterial blood. Gas measurement in suspected pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 162 (6): 2105–2108.

89. Stein P.D., Goldhaber S.Z., Henry J.W., Miller A.C. Arterial blood gas analysis in the assessment of suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 1996; 109 (1): 78–81.

90. Elliott C.G., Goldhaber S.Z., Visani L., DeRosa M. Chest. radiographs in acute pulmonary embolism. Results from the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry. Chest. 2000; 118 (1): 33–38.

91. Geibel A., Zehender M., Kasper W. et al. Prognostic value of the ECG on admission in patients with acute major pulmonary embolism. Eur. Respir. J. 2005; 25 (5): 843–848.

92. Miniati M., Pistolesi M., Marini C. et al. Value of perfusion lung scan in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: results of the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED). Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1996; 154 (5): 1387–1393.

93. Musset D., Parent F., Meyer G. et al. Diagnostic strategy for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: a prospective multicentre outcome study. Lancet. 2002; 360 (9349): 1914–1920.

94. Le Gal G., Righini M., Roy P.M. et al. Prediction of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: the revised Geneva score. Ann. Intern. Med. 2006; 144 (3): 165–171.

95. PIOPED Investigators. Value of the ventilation / perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism. Results of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolismdiagnosis (PIOPED). JAMA. 1990; 263 (20): 2753–2759.

96. Wells P.S., Anderson D.R., Rodger M. et al. Derivation of a simple clinical model to categorize patients probability of pulmonary embolism: increasing the models utility with the SimpliRED Ddimer. Thromb. Haemost. 2000; 83 (3): 416–420.

97. Anderson D.R., Kovacs M.J., Dennie C. et al. Use of spiral computed tomography contrast angiography and ultra sonography to exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department. J. Emerg. Med. 2005; 29 (4): 399–404.

98. Kearon C., Ginsberg J.S., Douketis J. et al. An evaluation of Ddimer in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 2006; 144 (11): 812–821.

99. Söhne M., Kamphuisen P.W., van Mierlo P.J., Büller H.R. Diagnostic strategy using a modified clinical decision rule and Ddimer test to rule out pulmonary embolism in elderly in and outpatients. Thromb. Haemost. 2005; 94 (1): 206–210.

100. van Belle A., Büller H.R., Huisman M.V. et al. Effectiveness of managing suspected pulmonary embolism using an algorithm combining clinical probability, Ddimer testing, and computed tomography. JAMA. 2006; 295 (2): 172–179.

101. Wells P.S., Anderson D.R., Rodger M. et al. Excluding pulmonary embolism at the bedside without diagnostic imaging: management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism presenting to the emergency department by using a simple clinical model and Ddimer. Ann. Intern. Med. 2001; 135 (2): 98–107.

102. Rodger M.A., Maser E., Stiell I. et al. The interobserver reliability of pretest probability assessment in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Res. 2005; 116 (2): 101–107.

103. Runyon M.S., Webb W.B., Jones A.E., Kline J.A. Comparison of the unstructured clinician estimate of pretest probability for pulmonary embolism to the Canadian score and the Charlotte rule: a prospective observational study. Acad. Emerg. Med. 2005; 12 (7): 587–593.

104. Wolf S.J., McCubbin T.R., Feldhaus K.M. et al. Prospective validation of Wells Criteria in the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2004; 44 (5): 503–510.

105. Ceriani E., Combescure C., Le Gal G. et al. Clinical prediction rules for pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 8 (5): 957–970.

106. Douma R.A., MosI C., Erkens P.M. et al. Performance of 4 clinical decision rules in the diagnostic management of acute pulmonary embolism: a prospective cohort study. Ann. Intern. Med. 2011; 154 (11): 709–718.

107. Lucassen W., Geersing G.J., Erkens P.M. et al. Clinical decision rules for excluding pulmonary embolism: a metaanalysis. Ann. Intern. Med. 2011; 155 (7): 448–460.

108. Gibson N.S., Sohne M., Kruip M.J. et al. Further validation and simplification of the Wells clinical decision rule in pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 99 (1): 229–234.

109. Klok F.A., Mos I.C., Nijkeuter M. et al. Simplification of the revised Geneva score for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism. Arch. Intern. Med. 2008; 168 (19): 2131–2136.

110. Douma R.A., Gibson N.S., Gerdes V.E. et al. Validity and clinical utility of the simplified Wells rule for assessing clinical probability for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 101 (1): 197–200.

111. Di Nisio M., Squizzato A., Rutjes A.W. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of Ddimer test for exclusion of venous throm boembolism: a systematic review. Thromb. Haemost. 2007; 5 (2): 296–304.

112. Stein P.D., Hull R.D., Patel K.C. et al. Ddimer for the exclusion of acute venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review. Ann. Intern. Med. 2004; 140 (8): 589–602.

113. Perrier A., Roy P.M., Aujesky D. et al. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism in outpatients with clinical assessment, Ddimer measurement, venous ultrasound, and helical computed tomography: a multicenter management study. Am. J. Med. 2004; 116 (5): 291–299.

114. Perrier A., Roy P.M., Sanchez O. et al. Multidetectorrow computed tomography in suspected pulmonary embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005; 352 (17): 1760–1768.

115. Perrier A., Desmarais S., Miron M.J. et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in outpatients. Lancet. 1999; 353 (9148): 190–195.

116. Kruip M.J., Slob M.J., Schijen J.H. et al. Use of a clinical decision rule in combination with Ddimer concentration in diagnostic workup of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: a prospective management study. Arch. Intern. Med. 2002; 162 (14): 1631–1635.

117. Righini M., Le Gal G., Aujesky D. et al. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by multidetector CT alone or combined with venous ultrasonography of the leg: a randomised non inferiority trial. Lancet. 2008; 371 (9621): 1343–1352.

118. Carrier M., Righini M., Djurabi R.K. et al. VIDAS Ddimer in combination with clinical pretest probability to rule out pulmonary embolism. A systematic review of management outcome studies. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 101 (5): 886–892.

119. Geersing G.J., Erkens P.M., Lucassen W.A. et al. Safe exclusion of pulmonary embolism using the Wells rule and qualitative Ddimer testing in primary care: prospective cohort study. Br. Med. J. 2012; 345: e6564.

120. Righini M., Goehring C., Bounameaux H., Perrier A. Effects of age on the performance of common diagnostic tests for pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Med. 2000; 109 (5): 357–361.

121. Douma R.A., Le G.G., Sohne M. et al. Potential of an age adjusted Ddimer cutoff value to improve the exclusion of pulmonary embolism in older patients: a retrospective analysis of three large cohorts. Br. Med. J. 2010; 340: c1475.

122. Penaloza A., Roy P.M., Kline J. et al. Performance of age adjusted Ddimer cutoff to rule out pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2012; 10 (7): 1291–1296.

123. Schouten H.J., Geersing G.J., Koek H.L. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted Ddimer cutoff values in older patients with suspected venous thromboem bolism: systematic review and metaanalysis. Br. Med. J. 2013; 346: f2492.

124. Righini M., Van Es J., den Exter P.L. et al. Ageadjusted D dimer cutoff levels to rule out pulmonary embolism: the ADJUSTPE study. JAMA. 2014; 311 (11): 1117–1124.

125. Di Nisio M., Söhne M., Kamphuisen P.W., Büller H.R. DDimer test in cancer patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2005; 3 (6): 1239–1242.

126. Righini M., Le Gal G., De Lucia S. et al. Clinical usefulness of Ddimer testing in cancer patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2006; 95 (4): 715–719.

127. Miron M.J., Perrier A., Bounameaux H. et al. Contribution of noninvasive evaluation to the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in hospitalized patients. Eur. Respir. J. 1999; 13 (6): 1365–1370.

128. Chabloz P., Reber G., Boehlen F. et al. TAFI antigen and D dimer levels during normal pregnancy and at delivery. Br. J. Haematol. 2001; 115 (1): 150–152.

129. Francalanci I., Comeglio P., Liotta A.A. et al. Ddimer concentrations during normal pregnancy, as measured by ELISA. Thromb. Res. 1995; 78 (5): 399–405.

130. Leclercq M.G., Lutisan J.G., van Marwijk Kooy M. et al. Ruling out clinically suspected pulmonary embolism by assessment of clinical probability and Ddimer levels: a management study. Thromb. Haemost. 2003; 89 (1): 97–103.

131. Ten Wolde M., Hagen P.J., Macgillavry M.R. et al. Non invasive diagnostic workup of patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism; results of a management study. Thromb. Haemost. 2004; 2 (7): 1110–1117.

132. Ghaye B., Szapiro D., Mastora I. et al. Peripheral pulmonary arteries: how far in the lung does multidetector rowspiral CT allow analysis? Radiology. 2001; 219 (3): 629–636.

133. Patel S., Kazerooni E.A., Cascade P.N. Pulmonary embolism: optimization of small pulmonary artery visualization at multidetector row CT. Radiology. 2003; 227 (2): 455–460.

134. RemyJardin M., Remy J., Wattinne L., Giraud F. Central pulmonary thromboembolism: diagnosis with spiral volumetric CT with the singlebreathhold technique: comparison with pulmonary angiography. Radiology. 1992; 185 (2): 381–387.

135. Stein P.D., Fowler S.E., Goodman L.R. et al. Multidetector computed tomography for acute pulmonary embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006; 354 (22): 2317–2327.

136. Anderson D.R., Kahn S.R., Rodger M.A. et al. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilationperfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007; 298 (23): 2743–2753.

137. Carrier M., Righini M., Wells P.S. et al. Subsegmental pulmonary embolism diagnosed by computed tomography: incidence and clinical implications. A systematic review and metaanalysis of the management outcome studies. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 8 (8): 1716–1722.

138. Stein P.D., Goodman L.R., Hull R.D. et al. Diagnosis and management of isolated subsegmental pulmonary embolism: reviewand assessment of the options. Clin. Appl. Thromb Hemost. 2012; 18 (1): 20–26.

139. Goodman L.R., Stein P.D., Matta F. et al. CT venography and compression sonography are diagnostically equivalent: data from PIOPED II. Am. J. Roentgenol. 2007; 189 (5): 1071–1076.

140. Brenner D.J., Hall E.J. Computed tomography: an increasing source of radiation exposure. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007; 357 (22): 2277–2284.

141. Farrell C., Jones M., Girvin F. et al. Unsuspected pulmonary embolism identified using multidetector computed tomography in hospital outpatients. Clin. Radiol. 2010; 65 (1): 1–5.

142. Jia C.F., Li Y.X., Yang Z.Q. et al. Prospective evaluation of unsuspected pulmonary embolism on coronary computed tomographic angiography. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 2012; 36 (2): 187–190.

143. Palla A., Rossi G., Falaschi F. et al. Is incidentally detected pulmonary embolism in cancer patients less severe? A case control study. Cancer Invest. 2012; 30 (2): 131–134.

144. Sahut D’Izarn M., Caumont Prim A., Planquette B. et al. Risk factors and clinical outcome of unsuspected pulmonary embolism in cancer patients: a casecontrol study. Thromb. Haemost. 2012; 10 (10): 2032–2038.

145. Kearon C., Akl E.A., Comerota A.J. et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed.: American College of Chest. Physicians EvidenceBased Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141 (2, Suppl.): e419S–e494S.

146. Alderson P.O. Scintigraphic evaluation of pulmonary embolism. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 1987; 13 (Suppl.): S6–10.

147. Miller R.F., O'Doherty M.J. Pulmonary nuclear medicine. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 1992; 19 (5): 355–368.

148. Roach P.J., Schembri G.P., Bailey D.L. V/Q scanning using SPECT and SPECT/CT. J. Nucl. Med. 2013; 54 (9): 1588–1596.

149. Schembri G.P., Miller A.E., Smart R. Radiation dosimetry and safety issues in the investigation of pulmonary embolism. Semin. Nucl. Med. 2010; 40 (6): 442–454.

150. Reid J.H., Coche E.E., Inoue T. et al. Is the lung scan alive and well? Facts and controversies in defining the role of lung scintigraphy for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the era of MDCT. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging. 2009; 36 (3): 505–521.

151. Gottschalk A., Sostman H.D., Coleman R.E. et al. Ventilationperfusion scintigraphy in the PIOPED study. Part II. Evaluation of the scintigraphic criteria and interpretations. J. Nucl. Med. 1993; 34 (7): 1119–1126.

152. Sostman H.D., Coleman R.E., DeLong D.M. et al. Evaluation of revised criteria for ventilationperfusion scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Radiology. 1994; 193 (1): 103–107.

153. Bajc M., Olsson B., Palmer J., Jonson B. Ventilation / Perfusion SPECT for diagnostics of pulmonary embolism in clinical practice. J. Intern. Med. 2008; 264 (4): 379–387.

154. Glaser J.E., Chamarthy M., Haramati L.B. et al. Successful and safe implementation of a trinary interpretation and reporting strategy for V/Q lung scintigraphy. J. Nucl. Med. 2011; 52 (10): 1508–1512.

155. Sostman H.D., Stein P.D., Gottschalk A. et al. Acute pulmonary embolism: sensitivity and specificity of ventilation perfusion scintigraphy in PIOPED II study. Radiology. 2008; 246 (3): 941–946.

156. Stein P.D., Terrin M.L., Gottschalk A. et al. Value of ventilation / perfusion scans vs. perfusion scans alone in acute pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Cardiol. 1992; 69 (14): 1239–1241.

157. Miniati M., Monti S., Bauleo C. et al. A diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism based on standardised pretest probability and perfusion lung scanning: a management study. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging. 2003; 30 (11): 1450–1456.

158. Roy P.M., Colombet I., Durieux P. et al. Systematic review and metaanalysis of strategies for the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism. Br. Med. J. 2005; 331 (7511): 259.

159. Collart J.P., Roelants V., Vanpee D. et al. Is a lung perfusion scan obtained by using single photon emission computed tomography able to improve the radionuclide diagnosis of pulmonary embolism? Nucl. Med. Commun. 2002; 23 (11): 1107–1113.

160. Corbus H.F., Seitz J.P., Larson R.K. et al. Diagnostic usefulness of lung SPET in pulmonary thromboembolism: an out come study. Nucl. Med. Commun. 1997; 18 (10): 897–906.

161. Reinartz P., Wildberger J.E., Schaefer W. et al. Tomographic imaging in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a comparison between V/Q lung scintigraphy in SPECT technique and multislice spiral CT. J. Nucl. Med. 2004; 45 (9): 1501–1508.

162. Gutte H., Mortensen J., Jensen C.V. et al. Detection of pulmonary embolism with combined ventilationperfusion SPECT and lowdose CT: headtohead comparison with multidetector CT angiography. J. Nucl. Med. 2009; 50 (12): 1987–1992.

163. Reinartz P., Kaiser H.J., Wildberger J.E. et al. SPECT imaging in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: automated detection of match and mismatch defects by means of imageprocessing techniques. J. Nucl. Med. 2006; 47 (6): 968–973.

164. van Beek E.J., Reekers J.A., Batchelor D.A. et al. Feasibility, safety and clinical utility of angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Eur. Radiol. 1996; 6 (4): 415–419.

165. Diffin D.C., Leyendecker J.R., Johnson S.P. et al. Effect of anatomic distribution of pulmonary emboli on interobserver agreement in the interpretation of pulmonary angiography. Am. J. Roentgenol. 1998; 171 (4): 1085–1089.

166. Stein P.D., Henry J.W., Gottschalk A. Reassessment of pulmonary angiography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: relation of interpreteragreement to the order of the involved pulmonary arterial branch. Radiology. 1999; 210 (3): 689–691.

167. Miller G.A., Sutton G.C., Kerr I.H. et al. Comparison of streptokinase and heparin in treatment of isolated acute massive pulmonary embolism. Br. Heart J. 1971; 33 (4): 616.

168. Stein P.D., Athanasoulis C., Alavi A. et al. Complications and validity of pulmonary angiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 1992; 85 (2): 462–468.

169. Wan S., Quinlan D.J., Agnelli G., Eikelboom J.W. Thrombolysiscompared with heparin for the initial treatment of pulmonary embolism: a metaanalysis of the randomized controlled trials. Circulation. 2004; 110 (6): 744–749.

170. Engelberger R.P., Kucher N. Catheterbased reperfusion treatment of pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 2011; 124 (19): 2139–2144.

171. Revel M.P., Sanchez O., Couchon S. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for an acute pulmonary embolism: results of the IRMEP study. Thromb. Haemost. 2012; 10 (5): 743–750.

172. Stein P.D., Chenevert T.L., Fowler S.E. et al. Gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for pulmonary embolism: a multicenter prospective study (PIOPED III). Ann. Intern. Med. 2010; 152 (7): 434–3.

173. Grifoni S., Olivotto I., Cecchini P. et al. Shortterm clinical outcome of patients with acute pulmonary embolism, normal blood pressure, and echocardiographic right ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2000; 101 (24): 2817– 2822.

174. Torbicki A., Kurzyna M., Ciurzynski M. et al. Proximal pulmonary embolimodify right ventricular ejection pattern. Eur. Respir. J. 1999; 13 (3): 616–621.

175. Bova C., Greco F., Misuraca G. et al. Diagnostic utility of echocardiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2003; 21 (3): 180–183.

176. Kurzyna M., Torbicki A., Pruszczyk P. et al. Disturbed right ventricular ejection pattern as a new Doppler echocardio graphic sign of acute pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Cardiol. 2002; 90 (5): 507–511.

177. Casazza F., Bongarzoni A., Capozi A., Agostoni O. Regional right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism and right ventricular infarction. Eur. J. Echocardiogr. 2005; 6 (1): 11–14.

178. Pruszczyk P., Goliszek S., Lichodziejewska B. et al. Prognostic value of echocardiography in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism. JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging. 2014; 7 (6): 553–560.

179. Rudski L.G., Lai W.W., Afilalo J. et al. Guidelines for the echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography endorsed by the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 2010; 23 (7): 685–713.

180. Platz E., Hassanein A.H., Shah A. et al. Regional right ventricular strain pattern in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Echocardiography. 2012; 29 (4): 464–470.

181. Sugiura E., Dohi K., Onishi K. et al. Reversible right ven tricular regional nonuniformity quantified by speckle tracking strain imaging in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 2009; 22 (12): 1353–1359.

182. Hsiao S.H., Chang S.M., Lee C.Y. et al. Usefulness of tissue Doppler parameters for identifying pulmonary embolism in patients with signs of pulmonary hypertension. Am. J. Cardiol. 2006; 98 (5): 685–690.

183. Kucher N., Luder C.M., Dörnhöfer T. et al. Novel management strategy for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Eur. Heart J. 2003; 24 (4): 366–376.

184. Mansencal N., Attias D., Caille V. et al. Computed tomography for the detection of freefloating thrombi in the right heart in acute pulmonary embolism. Eur. Radiol. 2011; 21 (2): 240–245.

185. Torbicki A., Galiè N., Covezzoli A. et al. Right heart thrombi in pulmonary embolism: results from the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2003; 41 (12): 2245–2251.

186. Casazza F., Bongarzoni A., Centonze F., Morpurgo M. Prevalence and prognostic significance of rightsided cardiac mobile thrombi in acute massive pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Cardiol. 1997; 79 (10): 1433–1435.

187. Mollazadeh R., Ostovan M.A., Abdi Ardekani A.R. Right cardiac thrombus in transit among patients with pulmonary thromboemboli. Clin. Cardiol. 2009; 32 (6): E27–E31.

188. Rose P.S., Punjabi N.M., Pearse D.B. Treatment of right heart thromboemboli. Chest. 2002; 121 (3): 806–814.

189. Krivec B., Voga G., Zuran I. et al. Diagnosis and treatment of shock due to massive pulmonary embolism: approach with transesophageal echocardiography and intrapulmonary thrombolysis. Chest. 1997; 112 (5): 1310–1316.

190. Pruszczyk P., Torbicki A., KuchWocial A. et al. Diagnostic value of transoesophageal echocardiography in suspected haemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism. Heart. 2001; 85 (6): 628–634.

191. Pruszczyk P., Torbicki A., Pacho R. et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of suspected severe pulmonary embolism: trans esophageal echocardiography vs. spiral CT. Chest. 1997; 112 (3): 722–728.

192. Hull R.D., Hirsh J., Carter C.J. et al. Pulmonary angiography, ventilation lung scanning, and venography for clinically suspected pulmonary embolism with abnormal perfusion lung scan. Ann. Intern. Med. 1983; 98 (6): 891–899.

193. Kearon C., Ginsberg J.S., Hirsh J. The role of venous ultra sonography in the diagnosis of suspected deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Ann. Intern. Med. 1998; 129 (12): 1044–1049.

194. Perrier A., Bounameaux H. Ultrasonography of leg veins in patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism. Ann. Intern. Med. 1998; 128 (3): 243–245.

195. Le Gal G., Righini M., Sanchez O. et al. Apositive compression ultrasonography of the lower limb veins is highly predictive of pulmonary embolism on computed tomography in suspected patients. Thromb. Haemost. 2006; 95 (6): 963–966.

196. Elias A., Colombier D., Victor G. et al. Diagnostic performance of complete lower limb venous ultrasound in patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2004; 91 (1): 187–195.

197. Righini M., Le G.G., Aujesky D. et al. Complete venous ultrasound in outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 7 (3): 406–412.

198. Kline J.A., Webb W.B., Jones A.E., HernandezNino J. Impact of a rapid ruleout protocol for pulmonary embolism on the rate of screening, missed cases, and pulmonary vascular imaging in an urban US emergency department. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2004; 44 (5): 490–502.

199. Roy P.M., Meyer G., Vielle B. et al. Appropriateness of diagnostic management and outcomes of suspected pulmonary embolism. Ann. Intern. Med. 2006; 144 (3): 157–164.

200. Ferrari E., Benhamou M., Berthier F., Baudouy M. Mobile thrombi of the right heart in pulmonary embolism: delayed disappearance after thrombolytic treatment. Chest. 2005; 127 (3): 1051–1053.

201. PierreJustin G., Pierard L.A. Management of mobile right heart thrombi: a prospective series. Int. J. Cardiol. 2005; 99 (3): 381–388.

202. VieillardBaron A., Qanadli S.D., Antakly Y. et al. Transesophageal echocardiography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with acute cor pulmonale: a comparison with radiological procedures. Intensive Care Med. 1998; 24 (5): 429–433.

203. Righini M., Aujesky D., Roy P.M. et al. Clinical usefulness of Ddimer depending on clinical probability and cutoffvalue in outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Arch. Intern. Med. 2004; 164 (22): 2483–2487.

204. Perrier A., Miron M.J., Desmarais S. et al. Using clinical evaluation and lung scan to rule out suspected pulmonary embolism: Is it a valid option in patients with normal results of lowerlimb venous compression ultrasonography? Arch. Intern. Med. 2000; 160 (4): 512–516.

205. Stein P.D., Sostman H.D., Dalen J.E. et al. Controversies in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost. 2011; 17 (2): 140–149.

206. den Exter P.L., Van Es J., Klok F.A. et al. Risk profile and clinical outcome of symptomatic subsegmental acute pulmonary embolism. Blood. 2013; 122 (7): 1144–1149.

207. Wiener R.S., Schwartz L.M., Woloshin S. Whena test is too good: how CT pulmonary angiograms find pulmonary emboli that do not need to be found. Br. Med. J. 2013; 347: f3368.

208. Tsai J., Grosse S.D., Grant A.M. et al. Trends in inhospital deaths among hospitalizations with pulmonary embolism. Arch. Intern. Med. 2012; 172 (12): 960–961.

209. Wiener R.S., Schwartz L.M., Woloshin S. Time trends in pulmonary embolism in the United States: evidence of over diagnosis. Arch. Intern. Med. 2011; 171 (9): 831–837.

210. Ayaram D., Bellolio M.F., Murad M.H. et al. Triple ruleout computed tomographic angiography for chest pain: a diagnostic systematic review and metaanalysis. Acad. Emerg. Med. 2013; 20 (9): 861–871.

211. Jiménez D., Aujesky D., Díaz G. et al. Prognostic significance of deep vein thrombosis in patients presenting with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2010; 181 (9): 983–991.

212. Chan C.M., Woods C., Shorr A.F. The validation and reproducibility of the pulmonary embolism severity index. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 8 (7): 1509–1514.

213. Donzé J., Le Gal G., Fine M.J. et al. Prospective validation of the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index. A clinical prognostic model for pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 100 (5): 943–948.

214. Vanni S., Nazerian P., Pepe G. et al. Comparison of two prognostic models for acute pulmonary embolism: clinical vs right ventricular dysfunctionguided approach. Thromb. Haemost. 2011; 9 (10): 1916–1923.

215. Aujesky D., Obrosky D.S., Stone R.A. et al. Derivation and validation of a prognostic model for pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2005; 172 (8): 1041–1046.

216. Jiménez D., Yusen R.D., Otero R. et al. Prognostic models for selecting patients with acute pulmonary embolism for initial outpatient therapy. Chest. 2007; 132 (1): 24–30.

217. Wicki J., Perrier A., Perneger T.V. et al. Predicting adverse outcome in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a risk score. Thromb. Haemost. 2000; 84 (4): 548–552.

218. Aujesky D., Roy P.M., Verschuren F. et al. Outpatient versus inpatient treatment for patients with acute pulmonary embolism: an international, openlabel, randomised, non inferiority trial. Lancet. 2011; 378 (9785): 41–48.

219. Jiménez D., Aujesky D., Moores L. et al. Simplification of the pulmonary embolism severity index for prognostication in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Arch. Intern. Med. 2010; 170 (15): 1383–1389.

220. Righini M., Roy P.M., Meyer G. et al. The Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI): validation of a clinical prognostic model for pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2011; 9 (10): 2115–2117.

221. Sam A., Sánchez D., Gómez V. et al. The shock index and the simplified PESI for identification of lowrisk patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Eur. Respir. J. 2011; 37 (4): 762–766.

222. Lankeit M., Gomez V., Wagner C. et al. A strategy combining imaging and laboratory biomarkers in comparison with a simplified clinical score for risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2012; 141 (4): 916–922.

223. Spirk D., Aujesky D., Husmann M. et al. Cardiac troponin testing and the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index. The SWIss Venous Thromboembolism Registry (SWIVTER). Thromb. Haemost. 2011; 106 (5): 978–984.

224. Kreit J.W. The impact of right ventricular dysfunction on the prognosis and therapy of normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2004; 125 (4): 1539–1545.

225. Kucher N., Rossi E., De Rosa M., Goldhaber S.Z. Prognostic role of echocardiography among patients with acute pulmonary embolism and a systolic arterial pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Arch. Intern. Med. 2005; 165 (15): 1777–1781.

226. ten Wolde M., Söhne M., Quak E. et al. Prognostic value of echocardiographically assessed right ventricular dysfunction in patients with pulmonary embolism. Arch. Intern. Med. 2004; 164 (15): 1685–1689.

227. Coutance G., Cauderlier E., Ehtisham J. et al. The prognostic value of markers of right ventricular dysfunction in pulmonary embolism: a metaanalysis. Crit. Care. 2011; 15 (2): R103.

228. Sanchez O., Trinquart L., Colombet I. et al. Prognostic value of right ventricular dysfunction in patients with haemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism: a systematic review. Eur. Heart J. 2008; 29 (12): 1569–1577.

229. Becattini C., Agnelli G., Vedovati M.C. et al. Multidetector computed tomography for acute pulmonary embolism: diagnosis and risk stratification in a single test. Eur. Heart J. 2011; 32 (13): 1657–1663.

230. TrujilloSantos J., den Exter P.L., Gómez V. et al. Computed tomographyassessed right ventricular dysfunction and risk stratification of patients with acute nonmassive pulmonary embolism: systematic review and metaanalysis. Thromb. Haemost. 2013; 11 (10): 1823–1832.

231. Becattini C., Agnelli G., Germini F., Vedovati M.C. Computed tomography to assess risk of death in acute pulmonary embolism: a metaanalysis. Eur. Respir. J. 2014; 43 (6): 1678–1690.

232. Henzler T., Roeger S., Meyer M. et al. Pulmonary embolism: CT signs and cardiac biomarkers for predicting right ventricular dysfunction. Eur. Respir. J. 2012; 39 (4): 919–926.

233. Klok F.A., Mos I.C., Huisman M.V. Braintype natriuretic peptide levels in the prediction of adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008; 178 (4): 425–430.

234. Kucher N., Goldhaber S.Z. Cardiac biomarkers for risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 2003; 108 (18): 2191–2194.

235. Lankeit M., Jimenez D., Kostrubiec M. et al. Validation of Nterminal probrain natriuretic peptide cutoff values for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism. Eur. Respir. J. 2014; 43 (6): 1669–1677.

236. Vuilleumier N., Le Gal G., Verschuren F. et al. Cardiac biomarkers for risk stratification in nonmassive pulmonary embolism: a multicenter prospective study. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 7 (3): 391–398.

237. Kostrubiec M., Pruszczyk P., Bochowicz A. et al. Biomarkerbased risk assessment model in acute pulmonary embolism. Eur. Heart J. 2005; 26 (20): 2166–2172.

238. Agterof M.J., Schutgens R.E., Snijder R.J. et al. Out of hospital treatment of acute pulmonary embolism in patients with a low NTproBNP level. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 8 (6): 1235–1241.

239. ComaCanella I., Gamallo C., Martinez Onsurbe P., Lopez Sendon J. Acute right ventricular infarction secondary to massive pulmonary embolism. Eur. Heart J. 1988; 9 (5): 534–540.

240. Becattini C., Vedovati M.C., Agnelli G. Prognostic value of troponins in acute pulmonary embolism: a metaanalysis. Circulation. 2007; 116 (4): 427–433.

241. Jiménez D., Uresandi F., Otero R. et al. Troponinbased risk stratification of patients with acute nonmassive pulmonary embolism: systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2009; 136 (4): 974–982.

242. Lankeit M., Friesen D., Aschoff J. et al. Highly sensitive troponin T assay in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Eur. Heart J. 2010; 31 (15): 1836–1844.

243. Boscheri A., Wunderlich C., Langer M. et al. Correlation of hearttype fatty acidbinding protein with mortality and echocardiographic data in patients with pulmonary embolism at intermediate risk. Am. Heart J. 2010; 160 (2): 294–300.

244. Puls M., Dellas C., Lankeit M. et al. Hearttype fatty acidbinding protein permits early risk stratification of pulmonary embolism. Eur. Heart J. 2007; 28 (2): 224–229.

245. Dellas C., Puls M., Lankeit M. et al. Elevated hearttype fatty acidbinding protein levels on admission predict an adverse outcome in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010; 55 (19): 2150–2157.

246. Lankeit M., Friesen D., Schafer K. et al. A simple score for rapid risk assessment of nonhighrisk pulmonary embolism. Clin. Res. Cardiol. 2013; 102 (1): 73–80.

247. Dellas C., Tschepe M., Seeber V. et al. A novel HFABP assay and a fast prognostic score for risk assessment of nor motensive pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2014; 111 (5).

248. Kostrubiec M., Labyk A., PedowskaWłoszek J. et al. Assessment of renal dysfunction improves troponinbased shortterm prognosis in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 8 (4): 651–658.

249. Kostrubiec M., Labyk A., PedowskaWłoszek J. et al. Neutrophil gelatinaseassociated lipocalin, cystatin C and eGFR indicate acute kidney injury and predict prognosis of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Heart. 2012; 98 (16): 1221–1228.

250. Becattini C., Lignani A., Masotti L. et al. Ddimer for risk stratification in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2012; 33 (1): 48–57.

251. Lobo J.L., Zorrilla V., Aizpuru F. et al. Ddimer levels and 15day outcome in acute pulmonaryembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 7 (11): 1795–1801.

252. Aujesky D., Roy P.M., Guy M. et al. Prognostic value of Ddimer in patients with pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2006; 96 (4): 478–482.

253. Konstantinides S., Geibel A., Heusel G. et al. Heparin plusalteplase compared with heparin alone in patients with sub massive pulmonary embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002; 347 (15): 1143–1150.

254. Meyer G., Vicaut E., DanaysT. et al. Fibrinolysis for patients with intermediaterisk pulmonary embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2014; 370 (15): 1402–1411.

255. Jiménez D., Aujesky D., Moores LG. et al. Combinations of prognostic tools for identification of highrisk normotensive patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Thorax. 2011; 66 (1): 75–81.

256. Agterof M.J., Schutgens R.E., Moumli N. et al. A prognos tic model for short term adverse events in normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Hematol. 2011; 86 (8): 646–649.

257. Becattini C., Casazza F., Forgione C. et al. Acute pulmonary embolism: external validation of an integrated risk stratification model. Chest. 2013; 144 (5): 1539–1545.

258. Sanchez O., Trinquart L., Caille V. et al. Prognostic factors for pulmonary embolism: the prep study, a prospective multicenter cohort study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2010; 181 (2): 168–173.

259. Jiménez D., Kopecna D., Tapson V. et al. Derivation and validation of multimarker prognostication for normotensive patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2014; 189 (6): 718–726.

260. Bova C., Sanchez O., Prandoni P. et al. Identification of intermediaterisk patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Eur. Respir. J. 2014.

261. Binder L., Pieske B., Olschewski M. et al. Nterminal probrain natriuretic peptide or troponin testing followed by echocardiography for risk stratification of acute pulmonaryembolism. Circulation. 2005; 112 (11): 1573–1579.

262. The PEITHO Steering Committee. Singlebolus tenecteplase plus heparin compared with heparin alone for normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism who have evidence of right ventricular dysfunction and myocardial injury: rationale and design of the Pulmonary Embolism Thrombolysis (PEITHO) trial. Am. Heart J. 2012; 163 (1): 33–38.

263. Sanchez O., Trinquart L., Planquette B. et al. Echocardio graphy and pulmonary embolism severity index have inde pendent prognostic roles in pulmonary embolism. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 42 (3): 681–688.

264. Ghignone M., Girling L., Prewitt R.M. Volume expansion versus norepinephrine in treatment of a low cardiac output complicating an acute increase in right ventricular afterload in dogs. Anesthesiology. 1984; 60 (2): 132–135.

265. Mercat A., Diehl J.L., Meyer G. et al. Hemodynamic effects of fluid loading in acute massive pulmonary embolism. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 27 (3): 540–544.

266. Manier G., Castaing Y. Influence of cardiac output on oxygen exchange in acute pulmonary embolism. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992; 145 (1): 130–136.

267. Capellier G., Jacques T., Balvay P. et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in patients with pulmonary embolism. Intensive Care Med. 1997; 23 (10): 1089–1092.

268. Szold O., Khoury W., Biderman P. et al. Inhaled nitric oxide improves pulmonary functions following massive pulmonary embolism: a report of four patients and review of the literature. Lung. 2006; 184 (1): 1–5.

269. Kerbaul F., Gariboldi V., Giorgi R. et al. Effects of levosimendan on acute pulmonary embolisminduced right ventricular failure. Crit. Care Med. 2007; 35 (8): 1948–1954.

270. Kjaergaard B., Rasmussen B.S., de Neergaard S. et al. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support may be an efficient rescue of patients after massive pulmonary embolism. An experimental porcine study. Thromb. Res. 2012; 129 (4): e147–e151.

271. Delnoij T.S., Accord R.E., Weerwind P.W., Donker D.W. Atrial transseptal thrombus in massive pulmonary embolismsalvaged by prolonged extracorporeal life support after thromboembolectomy. A bridge to rightsided cardiovascular adaptation. Acute Card. Care. 2012; 14 (4): 138–140.

272. Leick J., Liebetrau C., Szardien S. et al. Percutaneous circulatory support in a patient with cardiac arrest due to acute pulmonary embolism. Clin. Res. Cardiol. 2012; 101 (12): 1017–1020.

273. Taniguchi S., Fukuda W., Fukuda I. et al. Outcome of pulmonary embolectomy for acute pulmonary thromboem bolism: analysis of 32 patients from a multicentre registry in Japan. Interact. Cardiovasc. Thorac. Surg. 2012; 14 (1): 64–67.

274. Cossette B., Pelletier M.E., Carrier N. et al. Evaluation of bleeding risk in patients exposed to therapeutic unfractionated or lowmolecularweight heparin: a cohort study in the context of a quality improvement initiative. Ann. Pharmacother. 2010; 44 (6): 994–1002.

275. van Dongen C.J., van den Belt A.G., Prins M.H., Lensing A.W. Fixed dose subcutaneous low molecular weight heparins vs. adjusted dose unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2004; (4): CD001100.

276. Stein P.D., Hull R.D., Matta F. et al. Incidence of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients with venous thromboem bolism. Am. J. Med. 2009; 122 (10): 919–930.

277. Prandoni P., Siragusa S., Girolami B., Fabris F. The incidence of heparininduced thrombocytopenia in medical patients treated with lowmolecularweight heparin: a prospective cohort study. Blood. 2005; 106 (9): 3049–3054.

278. Raschke R.A., Gollihare B., Peirce J.C. The effectiveness of implementing the weightbased heparin nomogram as a practice guideline. Arch. Intern. Med. 1996; 156 (15): 1645–1649.

279. Lee A.Y., Levine M.N., Baker R.I. et al. Lowmolecular weight heparin vs. a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003; 349 (2): 146–153.

280. Middeldorp S. How I treat pregnancyrelated venous thromboembolism. Blood. 2011; 118 (20): 5394–5400.

281. Samama M.M., Poller L. Contemporary laboratory monitoring of low molecular weight heparins. Clin. Lab. Med. 1995; 15 (1): 119–123.

282. Büller H.R., Davidson B.L., Decousus H. et al. Subcutaneous fondaparinux versus intravenous unfraction ated heparin in the initial treatment of pulmonary embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003; 349 (18): 1695–1702.

283. Warkentin T.E., Maurer B.T., Aster R.H. Heparininduced thrombocytopenia associated with fondaparinux. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007; 356 (25): 2653–2655.

284. Garcia D.A., Baglin T.P., Weitz J.I., Samama M.M. Parenteral anticoagulants: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest. Physicians EvidenceBased Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141 (2, Suppl.): e24S–e43S.

285. De Caterina R., Husted S., Wallentin L. et al. Vitamin K antagonists in heart disease: Current status and perspectives (Section III). Position Paper of the ESCWorking Group on Thrombosis – Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease. Thromb. Haemost. 2013; 110 (6): 1087–1107.

286. British Thoracic Society. Optimum duration of anticoagulation for deepvein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Lancet. 1992; 340 (8824): 873–876.

287. Carlquist J.F., Anderson J.L. Using pharmacogenetics in real time to guide warfarin initiation: a clinician update. Circulation. 2011; 124 (23): 2554–2559.

288. Epstein R.S., Moyer T.P., Aubert R.E. et al. Warfarin genotyping reduces hospitalization rates results from the MMWES (MedcoMayo Warfarin Effectiveness study). J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010; 55 (25): 2804–2812.

289. Jonas D.E., McLeod H.L. Genetic and clinical factors relating to warfarin dosing. Trends. Pharmacol. Sci. 2009; 30 (7): 375–386.

290. Anderson J.L., Horne B.D., Stevens S.M. et al. A randomized and clinical effectiveness trial comparing two pharmacogenetic algorithms and standard care for individualizing warfarin dosing (CoumaGenII). Circulation. 2012; 125 (16): 1997–2005.

291. Verhoef T.I., Ragia G., de Boer A. et al. A randomized trial of genotypeguided dosing of acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 369 (24): 2304–2312.

292. Kimmel S.E., French B., Kasner S.E. et al. A pharmacogenetic versus a clinical algorithm for warfarin dosing. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 369 (24): 2283–2293.

293. Pirmohamed M., Burnside G., Eriksson N. et al. A randomized trial of genotypeguided dosing of warfarin. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 369 (24): 2294–2303.

294. Schulman S., Kearon C., Kakkar A.K. et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboem bolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2009; 361 (24): 2342–2352.

295. Schulman S., Kakkar A.K., Goldhaber S.Z. et al. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism with dabigatran or war farin and pooled analysis. Circulation. 2014; 129 (7): 764–772.

296. Bauersachs R., Berkowitz S.D., Brenner B. et al. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2010; 363 (26): 2499–2510.

297. Büller H.R., Prins M.H., Lensin A.W. et al. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2012; 366 (14): 1287–1297.

298. Agnelli G., Büller H.R., Cohen A. et al. Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 369 (9): 799–808.

299. Büller H.R., Decousus H., Grosso M.A. et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 369 (15): 1406–1415.

300. van der Hulle T., Kooiman J., den Exter P.L. et al. Effectiveness and safety of novel oral anticoagulants as com pared with vitamin K antagonists in the treatment of acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Thromb. Haemost. 2014; 12 (3): 320–328.

301. Heidbuchel H., Verhamme P., Alings M. et al. EhrA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary. Eur. Heart J. 2013; 34 (27): 2094–2106.

302. DallaVolta S., Palla A., Santolicandro A. et al. PAIMS 2: alteplase combined with heparin versus heparin in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Plasminogen activator Italian multicenter study 2. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1992; 20 (3): 520–526.

303. Goldhaber S.Z., Haire W.D., Feldstein M.L. et al. Alteplase versus heparin in acute pulmonary embolism: randomised trial assessing rightventricular function and pulmonary perfusion. Lancet. 1993; 341 (8844): 507–511.

304. Becattini C., Agnelli G., Salvi A. et al. Bolus tenecteplase for right ventricle dysfunction in hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Res. 2010; 125 (3): e82–e86.

305. Konstantinides S., Tiede N., Geibel A. et al. Comparison of alteplase versus heparin for resolution of major pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Cardiol. 1998; 82 (8): 966–970.

306. Goldhaber S.Z., Kessler C.M., Heit J. et al. Randomised controlled trial of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator versus urokinase in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Lancet. 1988; 2 (8606): 293–298.

307. Meneveau N., Schiele F., Vuillemenot A. et al. Streptokinase vs. alteplase in massive pulmonary embolism. A ran domized trial assessing right heart haemodynamics and pulmonary vascular obstruction. Eur. Heart J. 1997; 18 (7): 1141–1148.

308. Meneveau N., Schiele F., Metz D. et al. Comparative efficacy of a twohour regimen of streptokinase versus alteplase in acute massive pulmonary embolism: immediate clinical and hemodynamic outcome and oneyear followup. J. Am. Coll.

309. Cardiol. 1998; 31 (5): 1057–1063.

310. Meyer G., Sors H., Charbonnier B. et al. Effects of intravenous urokinase versus alteplase on total pulmonary resistance in acute massive pulmonary embolism: a European multicenter doubleblind trial. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1992; 19 (2): 239–245.

311. Tebbe U., Graf A., Kamke W. et al. Hemodynamic effects of double bolus reteplase versus alteplase infusion in massive pulmonary embolism. Am. Heart J. 1999; 138 (1, Pt 1): 39–44.

312. Tebbe U., Bramlage P., Graf A. et al. Desmoteplase in acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 101 (3): 557–562.

313. Kline J.A., Nordenholz K.E., Courtney D.M. et al. Treatment of submassive pulmonary embolism with tenecteplase or placebo: cardiopulmonary outcomes at three months (TOPCOAT): Multicenter doubleblind, placebocontrolled randomized trial. Thromb. Haemost. 2014; 12 (4): 459–468.

314. van De Werf F., Ardissino D., Betriu A. et al. Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with STsegment elevation. The Task Force on the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur. Heart J. 2003; 24 (1): 28–66.

315. Meneveau N., Séronde M.F., Blonde M.C. et al. Management of unsuccessful thrombolysis in acute massive pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2006; 129 (4): 1043–1050.

316. Daniels L.B., Parker J.A., Patel S.R. et al. Relation of duration of symptoms with response to thrombolytic therapy in pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Cardiol. 1997; 80 (2): 184–188.

317. Stein P.D., Matta F. Thrombolytic therapy in unstable patients with acute pulmonary embolism: saves lives but underused. Am. J. Med. 2012; 125 (5): 465–470.

318. Kanter D.S., Mikkola K.M., Patel S.R. et al. Thrombolytic therapy for pulmonary embolism. Frequency of intracranial hemorrhage and associated risk factors. Chest. 1997; 111 (5): 1241–1245.

319. Levine M.N., Goldhaber S.Z., Gore J.M. et al. Hemor rhagic complications of thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of myocardial infarction and venous thromboem bolism. Chest. 1995; 108 (4, Suppl.): 291S–301S.

320. Mikkola K.M., Patel S.R., Parker J.A. et al. Increasing age is a major risk factor for hemorrhagic complications after pulmonary embolism thrombolysis. Am. Heart J. 1997; 134 (1): 69–72.

321. Sharifi M., Bay C., Skrocki L. et al. Moderate pulmonary embolism treated with thrombolysis (from the MOPETT Trial). Am. J. Cardiol. 2013; 111 (2): 273–277.

322. Wang C., Zhai Z., Yang Y. et al. Efficacy and safety of low dose recombinant tissuetype plasminogen activator for the treatment of acute pulmonary thromboembolism: a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Chest. 2010; 137 (2): 254–262.

323. Chartier L., Büra J., Delomez M. et al. Freefloating thrombi in the right heart: diagnosis, management, and prognostic indexes in 38 consecutive patients. Circulation. 1999; 99 (21): 2779–2783.

324. Kinney E.L., Wright R.J. Efficacy of treatment of patients with echocardiographically detected rightsided heart thrombi: a metaanalysis. Am. Heart J. 1989; 118 (3): 569–573.

325. Myers P.O., Bounameaux H., Panos A. et al. Impending paradoxical embolism: systematic review of prognostic factors and treatment. Chest. 2010; 137 (1): 164–170.

326. Mathew T.C., Ramsaran E.K., Aragam J.R. Impending paradoxic embolismin acute pulmonary embolism: diagnosis by transesophageal echocardiography and treatment by emergent surgery. Am. Heart J. 1995; 129 (4): 826–827.

327. Kilic A., Shah A.S., Conte J.V., Yuh D.D. Nationwide out comes of surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 2013; 145 (2): 373–377.

328. Malekan R., Saunders P.C., Yu C.J. et al. Peripheral extra corporeal membrane oxygenation: comprehensive therapy for highrisk massive pulmonary embolism. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2012; 94 (1): 104–108.

329. Takahashi H., Okada K., Matsumori M. et al. Aggressive surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism with circulatory collapse. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2012; 94 (3): 785–791.

330. Leacche M., Unic D., Goldhaber S.Z. et al. Modern surgical treatment of massive pulmonary embolism: results in 47 consecutive patients after rapid diagnosis and aggressive surgical approach. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 2005; 129 (5): 1018–1023.

331. Aymard T., Kadner A., Widmer A. et al. Massive pulmonary embolism: surgical embolectomy versus thrombolytic therapy: should surgical indications be revisited? Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 2013; 43 (1): 90–94.

332. Fukuda I., Taniguchi S., Fukui K. et al. Improved outcome of surgical pulmonary embolectomy by aggressive intervention for critically ill patients. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2011; 91 (3): 728–732.

333. Aklog L., Williams C.S., Byrne J.G., Goldhaber S.Z. Acute pulmonary embolectomy: a contemporary approach. Circulation. 2002; 105 (12): 1416–1419.

334. Greelish J.P., Leacche M., Solenkova N.S. et al. Improved midterm outcomes for type A (central) pulmonary embolitreated surgically. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 2011; 142 (6): 1423–1429.

335. Vohra H.A., Whistance R.N., Mattam K. et al. Early andlate clinical outcomes of pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2010; 90 (6): 1747–1752.

336. Kuo W.T., Gould M.K., Louie J.D. et al. Catheterdirected therapy for the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism: systematic review and metaanalysis of modern techniques. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 2009; 20 (11): 1431–1440.

337. Engelberger R.P., Kucher N. Ultrasoundassisted thrombolysis for acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review. Eur. Heart J. 2014; 35 (12): 758–764.

338. Kucher N., Boekstegers P., Müller O.J. et al. Randomized, controlled trial of ultrasoundassisted catheterdirected thrombolysis for acute intermediaterisk pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 2014; 129 (4): 479–486.

339. Stein P.D., Matta F., Keyes D.C., Willyerd G.L. Impact of vena cava filters on inhospital case fatality rate from pulmonary embolism. Am. J. Med. 2012; 125 (5): 478–484.

340. Muriel A., Jiménez D., Aujesky D. et al. Survival effects of inferior vena cava filter in patients with acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism and a significant bleeding risk. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2014; 63 (16): 1675–1683.

341. Hann C.L., Streiff M.B. The role of vena caval filters in the management of venous thromboembolism. Blood. Rev. 2005; 19 (4): 179–202.

342. Kucher N. Clinical practice. Deepvein thrombosis of the upper extremities. N. Engl. J. Med. 2011; 364 (9): 861–869.

343. PREPIC Study Group. Eightyear followup of patients with permanent vena cava filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism: the PREPIC (Prevention du Risque d’Embolie Pulmonaire par Interruption Cave) randomized study. Circulation. 2005; 112 (3): 416–422.

344. Failla P.J., Reed K.D., Summer W.R., Karam G.H. Inferior vena caval filters: key considerations. Am. J. Med. Sci 2005; 330 (2): 82–87.

345. Zhu X., Tam M.D., Bartholomew J. et al. Retrievability and devicerelated complications of the G2 filter: a retrospective study of 139 filter retrievals. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 2011; 22 (6): 806–812.

346. KarmyJones R., Jurkovich G.J., Velmahos G.C. et al. Practice patterns and outcomes of retrievable vena cava filters in trauma patients: an AAST multicenter study. Trauma. 2007; 62 (1): 17–24.

347. Pacouret G., Alison D., Pottier J.M. et al. Freefloating thrombus and embolic risk in patients with angiographically confirmed proximal deep venous thrombosis. A prospective study. Arch. Intern. Med. 1997; 157 (3): 305–308.

348. Squizzato A., Donadini M.P., Galli L. et al. Prognostic clinical prediction rules to identify a lowrisk pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Thromb. Haemost. 2012; 10 (7): 1276–1290.

349. Zondag W., Mos I.C., CreemersSchild D. et al. Outpatient treatment in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: the Hestia Study. Thromb. Haemost. 2011; 9 (8): 1500–1507.

350. Lankeit M., Konstantinides S. Is it time for home treatment of pulmonary embolism? Eur. Respir. J. 2012; 40 (3): 742–749.

351. Otero R., Uresandi F., Jiménez D. et al. Home treatment in pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Res. 2010; 126 (1): e1–e5.

352. Uresandi F., Otero R., Cayuela A. et al. A clinical prediction rule for identifying shortterm risk of adverse events in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism. Arch. Bronco* neumol. 2007; 43 (11): 617–622.

353. Zondag W., Kooiman J., Klok F.A. et al. Outpatient versus inpatient treatment in patients with pulmonary embolism: a metaanalysis. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 42 (1): 134–144.

354. Brandjes D.P., Heijboer H., Büller H.R. et al. Acenocoumarol and heparin compared with acenocoumarol alone in the initial treatment of proximalvein thrombosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992; 327 (21): 1485–1489.

355. Büller H.R., Davidson B.L., Decousus H. et al. Fonda parinux or enoxaparin for the initial treatment of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 2004; 140 (11): 867–873.

356. Hull R.D., Raskob G.E., Rosenbloom D. et al. Heparin for 5 days as compared with 10 days in the initial treatment of proximal venous thrombosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990; 322 (18): 1260–1264.

357. Decousus H., Leizorovicz A., Parent F. et al. A clinical trial of vena caval filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with proximal deepvein thrombosis. Prevention du Risque d'Embolie Pulmonaire par Inter ruption Cave Study Group [see comments]. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998; 338 (7): 409–415.

358. Lee A.Y., Rickles F.R., Julian J.A. et al. Randomized comparison of low molecular weight heparin and coumarin derivatives on the survival of patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism. Clin. Oncol. 2005; 23 (10): 2123–2129.

359. Kakkar A.K., Levine M.N., Kadziola Z. et al. Low molecular weight heparin, therapy with dalteparin, and survival in advanced cancer: the fragmin advanced malignancy outcome study (FAMOUS). Clin. Oncol. 2004; 22 (10): 1944–1948.

360. Agnelli G., Prandoni P., Becattini C. et al. Extended oral anticoagulant therapy after a first episode of pulmonary embolism. Ann. Intern. Med. 2003; 139 (1): 19–25.

361. Murin S., Romano P.S., White R.H. Comparison of outcomes after hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2002; 88 (3): 407–414.

362. Schulman S., Granqvist S., Holmström M. et al. The duration of oral anticoagulant therapy after a second episode of venous thromboembolism. The Duration of Anticoagulation Trial Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997; 336 (6): 393–398.

363. Schulman S. The effect of the duration of anticoagulation and other risk factors on the recurrence of venous throm boembolisms. Duration of Anticoagulation Study Group. Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 1999; 149 (2–4): 66–69.

364. Douketis J.D., Gu C.S., Schulman S. et al. The risk for fatal pulmonary embolism after discontinuing anticoagulant ther apy for venous thromboembolism. Ann. Intern. Med. 2007; 147 (11): 766–774.

365. Schulman S., Rhedin A.S., Lindmarker P. et al. A comparison of six weeks with six months of oral anticoagulant therapy after a first episode of venous thromboembolism. Duration of Anticoagulation Trial Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 332 (25): 1661–1665.

366. Joung S., Robinson B. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients in Christchurch, 1995–1999. N. Z. Med. J. 2002; 115 (1155): 257–260.

367. Hutten B.A., Prins M.H., Gent M. et al. Incidence of recurrent thromboembolic and bleeding complications among patients with venous thromboembolism in relation to both malignancy and achieved international normalized ratio: a retrospective analysis. Clin. Oncol. 2000; 18 (17): 3078–3083.

368. Grifoni S., Vanni S., Magazzini S. et al. Association of persistent right ventricular dysfunction at hospital discharge after acute pulmonary embolism with recurrent thromboembolic events. Arch. Intern. Med. 2006; 166 (19): 2151–2156.

369. Palareti G., Cosmi B., Legnani C. et al. Ddimer testing to determine the duration of anticoagulation therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006; 355 (17): 1780–1789.

370. Becattini C., Agnelli G., Schenone A. et al. Aspirin for preventing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2012; 366 (21): 1959–1967.

371. Brighton T.A., Eikelboom J.W., Mann K. et al. Lowdose aspirin for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2012; 367 (21): 1979–1987.

372. Schulman S., Kearon C., Kakkar A.K. et al. Extended use of dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboem bolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 368 (8): 709–718.

373. Agnelli G., Büller H.R., Cohen A. et al. Apixaban for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 368 (8): 699–708.

374. Levine M.N., Hirsh J., Gent M. et al. Optimal duration of oral anticoagulant therapy: a randomized trial comparing four weeks with three months of warfarin in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis. Thromb. Haemost. 1995; 74 (2): 606–611.

375. Optimum duration of anticoagulation for deepvein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Research Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Lancet. 1992; 340 (8824): 873–876.

376. Campbell I.A., Bentley D.P., Prescott R.J. et al. Anticoagulation for three versus six months in patients with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, or both: ran domised trial. Br. Med. J. 2007; 334 (7595): 674.

377. Kearon C., Gent M., Hirsh J. et al. A comparison of three months of anticoagulation with extended anticoagulation for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism (published erratum appears in N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 341 (4): 298). N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 340 (12): 901–907.

378. Akl E.A., Labedi N., Barba M. et al. Anticoagulation for the longterm treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2011; (6): CD006650.

379. Akl E.A., Vasireddi S.R., Gunukula S. et al. Anticoagulation for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2011; (4): CD006649.

380. PepkeZaba J., Jansa P., Kim N.H. et al. Chronic throm boembolic pulmonary hypertension: role of medical therapy. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 41 (4): 985–990.

381. Galiè N., Hoeper M.M., Humbert M. et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Eur. Respir. J. 2009; 34 (6): 1219–1263.

382. Simonneau G., Gatzoulis M.A., Adatia I. et al. Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2013; 62 (25, Suppl.): D34–D41.

383. Lang I.M., Pesavento R., Bonderman D., Yuan J.X. Risk factors and basic mechanisms of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a current understanding. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 41 (2): 462–468.

384. Lang I.M., Simonneau G., PepkeZaba J.W. et al. Factors associated with diagnosis and operability of chronic throm boembolic pulmonary hypertension. A casecontrol study. Thromb. Haemost. 2013; 110 (1): 8391.

385. Wong C.L., Szydlo R., Gibbs S., Laffan M. Hereditary and acquired thrombotic risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Blood. Coagul. Fibrinolysis. 2010; 21 (3): 201–206.

386. Bonderman D., Jakowitsch J., Redwan B. et al. Role for staphylococci in misguided thrombus resolution of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2008; 28 (4): 678–684.

387. Quarck R., Nawrot T., Meyns B., Delcroix M. Creactive protein: a new predictor of adverse outcome in pulmonary arterial hypertension. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009; 53 (14): 1211–1218.

388. Firth A.L., Yao W., Ogawa A. et al. Multipotent mesenchy mal progenitor cells are present in endarterectomized tissues from patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 2010; 298 (5): C1217–C1225.

389. Yao W., Firth A.L., Sacks R.S. et al. Identification of putative endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+CD133+Flk1+) in endarterectomized tissue of patients with chronic throm boembolic pulmonary hypertension. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 2009; 296 (6): L870–L878.

390. Morris T.A., Marsh J.J., Chiles P.G. et al. High prevalence of dysfibrinogenemia among patients with chronic throm boembolic pulmonary hypertension. Blood. 2009; 114 (9): 1929–1936.

391. Bonderman D., SkoroSajer N., Jakowitsch J. et al. Predictors of outcome in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 2007; 115 (16): 2153–2158.

392. Delcroix M., Vonk Noordegraaf A., Fadel E. et al. Vascular and right ventricular remodelling in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 41 (1): 224–232.

393. Madani M.M., Auger W.R., Pretorius V. et al. Pulmonary endarterectomy: recent changes in a single institution’s experience of more than 2,700 patients. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2012; 94 (1): 97–103.

394. PepkeZaba J., Delcroix M., Lang I. et al. Chronic throm boembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): results from an international prospective registry. Circulation. 2011; 124 (18): 1973–1981.

395. Berger R.M., Beghetti M., Humpl T. et al. Clinical features of paediatric pulmonary hypertension: a registry study. Lancet. 2012; 379 (9815): 537–546.

396. Beghetti M., Berger R.M., SchulzeNeick I. et al. Diagnostic evaluation of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in current clinical practice. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 42 (3): 689–700.

397. Tunariu N., Gibbs S.J., Win Z. et al. Ventilationperfusion scintigraphy is more sensitive than multidetector CTPA in detecting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease as a treatable cause of pulmonary hypertension. J. Nucl. Med. 2007; 48 (5): 680–684.

398. Seferian A., Helal B., Jaїs X. et al. Ventilation / perfusion lung scan in pulmonary venoocclusive disease. Eur. Respir. J. 2012; 40 (1): 75–83.

399. Lang I.M., Plank C., SadushiKolici R. et al. Imaging in pulmonary hypertension. JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging. 2010; 3 (12): 1287–1295.

400. Mayer E., Jenkins D., Lindner J. et al. Surgical management and outcome of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: results from an international prospective registry. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 2011; 141 (3): 702–710.

401. Cummings K.W., Bhalla S. Multidetector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography: beyond acute pulmonary embolism. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2010; 48 (1): 51–65.

402. Sherrick A.D., Swensen S.J., Hartman T.E. Mosaic pattern of lung attenuation on CT scans: frequency among patients with pulmonary artery hypertension of different causes. Am. J. Roentgenol. 1997; 169 (1): 79–82.

403. Ley S., LeyZaporozhan J., Pitton M.B. et al. Diagnostic performance of stateoftheart imaging techniques for morphological assessment of vascular abnormalities in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Eur. Radiol. 2012; 22 (3): 607–616.

404. Shure D., Gregoratos G., Moser K.M. Fiberoptic angioscopy: role in the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary arterial obstruction. Ann. Intern. Med. 1985; 103 (6, Pt 1): 844–850.

405. Jenkins D.P., Madani M., Mayer E. et al. Surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 41 (3): 735–742.

406. Vuylsteke A., Sharples L., Charman G. et al. Circulatory arrest versus cerebral perfusion during pulmonary end arterectomy surgery (PEACOG): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011; 378 (9800): 1379–1387.

407. Mizoguchi H., Ogawa A., Munemasa M. et al. Refined balloon pulmonary angioplasty for inoperable patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 2012; 5 (6): 748–755.

408. Andreassen A.K., Ragnarsson A., Gude E. et al. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Heart. 2013; 99 (19): 1415–20.

409. Inami T., Kataoka M., Shimura N. et al. Pulmonary Edema Predictive Scoring Index (PEPSI), a new index to predict risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema and improvement of hemodynamics in percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2013; 6 (7): 725–736.

410. Kataoka M., Inami T., Hayashida K. et al. Percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 2012; 5 (6): 756–762.

411. PepkeZaba J., Jansa P., Kim N.H. et al. Chronic throm boembolic pulmonary hypertension: Role of medical therapy. Eur. Respir. J. 2013; 41 (4): 985–90.

412. Jais X., D’Armini A.M., Jansa P. et al. Bosentan for treatment of inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: BENEFIT (Bosentan Effects in iNopErable Forms of chronic Thromboembolic pulmonary hyperten sion), a randomized, placebocontrolled trial. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2008; 52 (25): 2127–2134.

413. Ghofrani H.A., D'Armini A.M., Grimminger F. et al. Riociguat for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 369 (4): 319–329.

414. Kim N.H., Delcroix M., Jenkins D.P. et al. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2013; 62 (25, Suppl.): D92–D99.

415. Jamieson S.W., Kapelanski D.P., Sakakibara N. et al. Pulmonary endarterectomy: experience and lessons learned in 1,500 cases. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2003; 76 (5): 1457–1462.

416. Rubin L.J., Hoeper M.M., Klepetko W. et al. Current and future management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: from diagnosis to treatment responses. Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc. 2006; 3 (7): 601–607.

417. Sullivan E.A., Ford J.B., Chambers G., Slaytor E.K. Maternal mortality in Australia, 1973–1996. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2004; 44 (5): 452–457.

418. RegitzZagrosek V., Blomstrom L.C., Borghi C. et al. ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: the Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur. Heart J. 2011; 32 (24): 3147–3197.

419. O'Connor C., Moriarty J., Walsh J. et al. The application of a clinical risk stratification score may reduce unnecessary investigations for pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 2011; 24 (12): 1461–1464.

420. Chan W.S., Chunilal S., Lee A. et al. A red blood cell agglutination Ddimer test to exclude deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy. Ann. Intern. Med. 2007; 147 (3): 165–170.

421. Chan W.S., Lee A., Spencer F.A. et al. Ddimer testing in pregnant patients: towards determining the next ’level’ in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 8 (5): 1004–1011.

422. Ginsberg J.S., Hirsh J., Rainbow A.J., Coates G. Risks to the fetus of radiologic procedures used in the diagnosis of maternal venous thromboembolic disease. Thromb. Haemost. 1989; 61 (2): 189–196.

423. Einstein A.J., Henzlova M.J., Rajagopalan S. Estimating risk of cancer associated with radiation exposure from 64slice computed tomography coronary angiography. JAMA. 2007; 298 (3): 317–323.

424. Revel M.P., Cohen S., Sanchez O. et al. Pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: diagnosis with lung scintigraphy or CT angiography? Radiology. 2011; 258 (2): 590–598.

425. Shahir K., Goodman L.R., Tali A. et al. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: CT pulmonary angiography versus perfusion scanning. Am. J. Roentgenol. 2010; 195 (3): W214–W220.

426. Cahill A.G., Stout M.J., Macones G.A., Bhalla S. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism in pregnancy using computedtomographic angiography or ventilationperfusion. Obstet. Gynecol. 2009; 114 (1): 124–129.

427. Ridge C.A., McDermott S., Freyne B.J. et al. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy. Am. J. Roentgenol. 2009; 193 (5): 1223–1227.

428. Scarsbrook A.F., Bradley K.M., Gleeson F.V. Perfusion scintigraphy: diagnostic utility in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolic disease. Eur. Radiol. 2007; 17 (10): 2554–2560.

429. Chan W.S., Ray J.G., Murray S. et al. Suspected pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: clinical presentation, results of lung scanning, and subsequent maternal and pediatric outcomes. Arch. Intern. Med. 2002; 162 (10): 1170–1175.

430. Balan K.K., Critchley M., Vedavathy K.K. et al. The value of ventilationperfusion imaging in pregnancy. Br. J. Radiol. 1997; 70 (832): 338–340.

431. Bourjeily G., Khalil H., Raker C. et al. Outcomes of negative multidetector computed tomography with pulmonary angiography in pregnant women suspected of pulmonary embolism. Lung. 2012; 190 (1): 105–111.

432. Bajc M., Neilly J.B., Miniati M. et al. EANM guidelines for ventilation / perfusion scintigraphy: Part 1. Pulmonary imaging with ventilation / perfusion single photon emission tomography. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging. 2009; 36 (8): 1356–1370.

433. Chunilal S.D., Bates S.M. Venousthromboembolism in pregnancy: diagnosis, management and prevention. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 101 (3): 428–438.

434. Romualdi E., Dentali F., Rancan E. et al. Anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy: a systematic review and a metaanalysis of the literature. Thromb. Haemost. 2013; 11 (2): 270–281.

435. Greer I.A., NelsonPiercy C. Lowmolecularweight heparins for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Blood. 2005; 106 (2): 401–407.

436. Rodie V.A., Thomson A.J., Stewart F.M. et al. Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of venous throm boembolism in pregnancy: a case series. Br. J. Obstet. Gynae* col. 2002; 109 (9): 1020–1024.

437. Lepercq J., Conard J., BorelDerlon A. et al. Venous throm boembolism during pregnancy: a retrospective study of enoxaparin safety in 624 pregnancies. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2001; 108 (11): 1134–1140.

438. Bates S.M., Greer I.A., Middeldorp S. et al. VTE, throm bophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: Anti thrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest. Physicians EvidenceBased Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141 (2, Suppl.): e691S–e736S.

439. Segal J.B., Streiff M.B., Hofmann L.V. et al. Management of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review for a practice guideline. Ann. Intern. Med. 2007; 146 (3): 211–222.

440. Leonhardt G., Gaul C., Nietsch H.H. et al. Thrombolytic therapy in pregnancy. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2006; 21 (3): 271–276.

441. CroninFenton D.P., Søndergaard F., Pedersen L.A. et al. Hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the general population: a populationbased cohort study in Denmark, 1997–2006. Br. J. Cancer. 2010; 103 (7): 947–953.

442. Palumbo A., Cavo M., Bringhen S. et al. Aspirin, warfarin, or enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis in patients with multiple myelomatreated with thalidomide: a phase III, openlabel, randomized trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 2011; 29 (8): 986–993.

443. Akl E.A., Vasireddi S.R., Gunukula S. et al. Anticoagulation for patients with cancer and central venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2011; (4): CD006468.

444. Sweetland S., Green J., Liu B. et al. Duration and magnitude of the postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism in middle aged women: prospective cohort study. Br. Med. J. 2009; 339: b4583.

445. Douma R.A., van Sluis G.L., Kamphuisen P.W. et al. Clinical decision rule and Ddimer have lower clinical utility to exclude pulmonary embolism in cancer patients. Explanations and potential ameliorations. Thromb. Haemost. 2010; 104 (4): 831–836.

446. Dentali F., Ageno W., Becattini C. et al. Prevalence and clinical history of incidental, asymptomatic pulmonary embolism: a metaanalysis. Thromb. Res. 2010; 125 (6): 518–522.

447. Engelke C., Manstein P., Rummeny E.J., Marten K. Suspected and incidental pulmonary embolism on multide tectorrow CT: analysis of technical and morphological factors influencing the diagnosis in a crosssectional cancer centre patient cohort. Clin. Radiol. 2006; 61 (1): 71–80.

448. Paddon A.J. Incidental pulmonary embolism detected by routine CT in patients with cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2005; 5 (1): 25–26.

449. den Exter P.L., Hooijer J., Dekkers O.M., Huisman M.V. Risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism and mortality in patients with cancer incidentally diagnosed with pulmonary embolism: a comparison with symptomatic patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 2011; 29 (17): 2405–2409.

450. AbdelRazeq H.N., Mansour A.H., Ismael Y.M. Incidental pulmonary embolism in cancer patients: clinical characteristics and outcome: a comprehensive cancer center experience. Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 2011; 7: 153–158.

451. Sun J.M., Kim T.S., Lee J. et al. Unsuspected pulmonary emboli in lung cancer patients: the impact on survival and the significance of anticoagulation therapy. Lung Cancer. 2010; 69 (3): 330–336.

452. RuízGiménez N., Suárez C., González R. et al. Predictive variables for major bleeding events in patients presenting with documented acute venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 100 (1): 26–31.

453. Nieto J.A., Camara T., GonzálezHigueras E. et al. Clinical outcome of patients with major bleeding after venous throm boembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 100 (5): 789–796.

454. Levitan N., Dowlati A., Remick S.C. et al. Rates of initial and recurrent thromboembolic disease among patients with malignancy versus those without malignancy. Risk analysis using Medicare claims data. Medicine (Baltimore). 1999; 78 (5): 285–291.

455. Louzada M.L., Carrier M., LazoLangner A. et al. Development of a clinical prediction rule for risk stratification of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancerassociated venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2012; 126 (4): 448–454.

456. TrujilloSantos J., Nieto J.A., Tiberio G. et al. Predicting recurrences or major bleeding in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 100 (3): 435–439.

457. Carrier M., Le Gal G., Cho R. et al. Dose escalation of low molecular weight heparin to manage recurrent venous throm boembolic events despite systemic anticoagulation in cancer patients. Thromb. Haemost. 2009; 7 (5): 760–765.

458. Barginear M.F., Gralla R.J., Bradley T.P. et al. Investigating the benefit of adding a vena cava filter to anticoagulation with fondaparinux sodium in patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Support Care Cancer. 2012; 20 (11): 2865–2872.

459. TrujilloSantos J., Prandoni P., RivronGuillot K. et al. Clinical outcome in patients with venous thromboembolism and hidden cancer: findings from the RIETE Registry. Thromb. Haemost. 2008; 6 (2): 251–255.

460. Sørensen H.T., Svaerke C., Farkas D.K. et al. Superficial and deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and subsequent risk of cancer. Eur. J. Cancer. 2012; 48 (4): 586–593.

461. Di Nisio M., Otten H.M., Piccioli A. et al. Decision analysis for cancer screening in idiopathic venous thromboem bolism. Thromb. Haemost. 2005; 3 (11): 2391–2396.

462. van Doormaal F.F., Terpstra W., Van Der Griend R. et al. Is extensive screening for cancer in idiopathic venous throm boembolism warranted? Thromb. Haemost. 2011; 9 (1): 79–84.

463. Farge D., Debourdeau P., Beckers M. et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylax is of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. Thromb. Haemost. 2013; 11 (1): 56–70.

464. Mandala M., Falanga A., Roila F. et al. Management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann. Oncol. 2011; 22 Suppl. 6: vi85–vi92.

465. Paddon A.J. Incidental pulmonary embolismdetected by routine CT in patients with cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2005; 5 (1): 25–26.

466. Montagnana M., Cervellin G., Franchini M., Lippi G. Pathophysiology, clinics and diagnostics of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2011; 31 (4): 436–444.

467. Bach A.G., Restrepo C.S., Abbas J. et al. Imaging of non thrombotic pulmonary embolism: biological materials, non biological materials, and foreign bodies. Eur. J. Radiol. 2013; 82 (3): e120–e141.

468. Sakuma M., Sugimura K., Nakamura M. et al. Unusual pulmonary embolism: septic pulmonary embolism and amniot ic fluid embolism. Circ. J. 2007; 71 (5): 772–775.

469. Wolf F., Schernthaner R.E., Dirisamer A. et al. Endovascular management of lost or misplaced intravascular objects: experiences of 12 years. Cardiovasc. Intervent. Radiol. 2008; 31 (3): 563–568.

470. Parisi D.M., Koval K., Egol K. Fat embolism syndrome. Am. J. Orthop. (Belle Mead NJ). 2002; 31 (9): 507–512.

471. Jorens P.G., Van M.E., Snoeckx A., Parizel P.M. Non thrombotic pulmonary embolism. Eur. Respir. J. 2009; 34 (2): 452–474.

472. Lin C.C., Liu P.H., Kao S.J., Chen H.I. Effects of phorbolmyristate acetate and sivelestat on the lung injury caused by fat embolism in isolated lungs. J. Biomed. Sci. 2012; 19: 3.

473. Orebaugh S.L. Venous air embolism: clinical and experimental considerations. Crit. Care Med. 1992; 20 (8): 1169–1177.

474. Muth C.M., Shank E.S. Gas embolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000; 342 (7): 476–482.

475. Knight M., Berg C., Brocklehurst P. et al. Amniotic fluid embolism incidence, risk factors and outcomes: a review and recommendations. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012; 12: 7.

476. Roberts K.E., HameleBena D., Saqi A. et al. Pulmonary tumor embolism: a review of the literature. Am. J. Med. 2003; 115 (3): 228–232.


Дополнительные файлы

Для цитирования: статья Р. Тромбоэмболия легочной артерии: клинические рекомендации Европейского общества кардиологов (2014).  Пульмонология. 2015;25(6):649-684. https://doi.org/10.18093/0869-0189-2015-25-6-649-684

For citation: article E. Pulmonary embolism: clinical guidelines of European Society of Cardiology (2014)*. Russian Pulmonology. 2015;25(6):649-684. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.18093/0869-0189-2015-25-6-649-684

Просмотров: 912

Обратные ссылки

  • Обратные ссылки не определены.


ISSN 0869-0189 (Print)
ISSN 2541-9617 (Online)