Preview

Пульмонология

Расширенный поиск

Клинические рекомендации по профессиональной астме

https://doi.org/10.18093/0869-0189-2007-0-3-10-28

Полный текст:

Об авторе

. .
Рабочая группа Испанского общества пульмонологии и торакальной хирургии (SEPAR)
Россия


Список литературы

1. Bernstein I.L., Bernstein D.I., Chan1Yeung M., Malo J.L. Definition and classification of asthma. In: Bernstein I.L., Chan Yeung M., Malo J.L., Bernstein D.I., eds. Asthma in the workplace. NewYork: Marcel Dekker; 1999. 1–3.

2. American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for assessing and managing asthma risk at work, school, and recreation. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2004; 169: 873–881.

3. Vandenplas O., Malo J.L. Definitions and types of work related asthma: a nosological approach. Eur. Respir. J. 2003; 21: 706–712.

4. Mapp C.E., Boschetto P., Maestrelli P., Fabri L.M. Occupational asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2005; 172: 280–305.

5. Tarlo S.M. Workplace irritant exposures: do they produce true occupational asthma? Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003; 90 (suppl.): 19–23.

6. Chang1Yeung M., Lam S. Occupational asthma. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1986; 133: 686–703.

7. Bernstein D.I. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to lowmolecular weight chemicals. Immunol. Allergy Clin. North. Am. 2003; 23: 221–234.

8. Gautrin D., Bernstein I.L., Brooks S. Reactive airways dys function syndrome or irritant induced asthma. In: Bernstein I.L., ChanYeung M., Malo J.L., Bernstein D.I., eds. Asthma in the workplace. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1999. 565–593.

9. Chan1Yeung M., Malo J.L. Tables of major inducers of occupational asthma. In: Bernstein I.L., Chan Yeung M., Malo J.L., Bernstein D.I., eds. Asthma in the workplace. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1999. 683–720.

10. Bernstein DI. Allergic reactions to workplace allergens. J. A. M. A. 1997; 278: 1907–1913.

11. Cullinan P., Newman Taylor A.J. Aetiology of occupation al asthma. Clin. Exp. Allergy 1997; 27: 41–46.

12. van Kampen V., Merget R., Baur X. Occupational airway sensitizers: an overview on the respective literature. Am. J. Industr. Med. 2000; 38: 164–218.

13. Mapp C.E. Agents, old and new, causing occupational asthma. Occup. Environ. Med. 2001; 58: 354–360.

14. Available from: www.worldallergy.org/professional/allergicdiseasecenter/occupationalallergens/index.shtml

15. Available from: www.asmanet.com

16. Available from: www.asthme.csst.qc.ca

17. Balmes J., Becklake M., Blanc P. et al. American Thoracic Society statement: occupational contribution to the bur den of airway disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003; 167: 787–797.

18. Tilles S.A., Jerath1Tatum A. Differential diagnosis of occu pational asthma. Immunol. Allergy Clin. N. Am. 2003; 23: 167–176.

19. Contreras G.R., Rousseau R., Chang1Yeung M. Occupa tional respiratory diseases in British Columbia, Canada in 1991. Occup. Environ. Med. 1994; 51: 710–712.

20. Kopferschmitt-Kubler M.C., Ameille J., Popin E. et al. Occupational asthma in France: a 1 yr report of the Obsservatoire National de Asthmes Professionels projet. Eur. Respir. J. 2002; 19: 84–89.

21. Munoz X., Cruz M.J., Orriols R. et al. Occupational asthma due to persulfate salts. Diagnosis and follow up. Chest 2003; 123: 2124–2129.

22. Orriols R., Costa R., Albanell M. et al. Reported occupa tional respiratory disease in Catalonia. Occup. Environ. Med. 2006. In press

23. Brooks S.M., Weiss M.R., Bernstein I.L. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS): persistent asthma syndrome after high level irritant exposures. Chest 1985; 88: 376–384.

24. Tarlo SM, Broder I. Irritant induced occupational asthma. Chest 1989; 96: 297–301.

25. Bardana E.J. Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS): fact or fantasy. Allergy 1999; 54: 33–35.

26. Costa R., Munoz X., Aviles B. et al. Sindrome de disfuncion reactiva de las vias respiratorias. Estudio de 18 casos. Med. Clin. (Barc.) 2005; 11: 419–426.

27. Matte T.D., Hoffman R.E., Rosenman K.D., Stanbury M. Surveillance of occupational asthma under the SENSOR model. Chest 1990; 98: 173S–178S.

28. McDonald J.C., Keynes H.L., Meredith S.K. Reported inci dence of occupational asthma in the United Kingdom 1989–1997. Occup. Environ. Med. 2000; 57: 823–829.

29. Tarlo S.M. Workplace respiratory irritants and asthma. Occup. Med. 2000; 15: 471–484.

30. Meredith S.K., Taylor V.M., McDonald J.C. Occupational respiratory disease in the United Kingdom 1989: a report of the British Thoracic Society and the Society of Occupational Medicine by the SWORD project group. Br. J. Industr. Med. 1991; 48: 292–298.

31. Venables K.M., Hawkins E.R., Tee R.D. et al. Smoking, atopy and laboratory animal allergy. Br. J. Industr. Med. 1988; 45: 667–671.

32. Fish J.E. Occupational asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis induced by natural rubber latex exposure. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2002; 110: 575–581.

33. Mapp C.E., Beghe B., Balboni A. et al. Association between HLA genes and susceptibility to toluene diisocyanate induced asthma. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 2000; 30: 651–656.

34. Home C., Quintana P.J., Keuwn P.A. et al. Distribution of DRB1 and DQB1 HLA class alleles in occupational asth ma due to western re cedar. Eur. Respir. J. 2000; 15: 911–914.

35. Newman1Taylor A.J. HLA phenotype and exposure in development of occupation asthma. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003; 90 (suppl. 2): 24–27.

36. Sastre J., Vandesplas O., Park H.1S. Pathogenesis of occu pational asthma. Eur. Respir. J. 2003; 22: 364–367.

37. Wan H., Winton H.L., Soeller C. et al. Der p1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight func tions. J. Clin. Invest. 1999; 104: 123–133.

38. Agius R.M., Nee J., Mc Govern B., Robertson A. Structure activity hypotheses in occupational asthma caused by low molecular weight substances. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 1991; 35: 129–137.

39. Newman-Taylor A. Asthma and work: the Colt Lecture, delivered at the Ninth International Symposium on Inhaled Particles, Cambridge, September 2001. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2002; 46: 563–574.

40. Chan-Yeung M., Malo J.L. Occupational asthma. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 333: 107–112.

41. Venables K.M., Topping M.D., Howe W. et al. Interactions of smoking and atopy in producing specific IgE antibody against a hapten protein conjugate. Br. Med. J. 1985; 290: 201–204.

42. Biagini R.E., Moorman W.J., Lewis T.R., Bernstein I.L. Ozone enhancement of platinum asthma in a primate model. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1986; 134: 719–725.

43. Park H.S., Hong C.S. The significance of specific IgG and IgG4 antibodies to a reactive dye in exposed workers. Clin. Exp. Allergy 1991; 21: 357–362.

44. Maestrelli P., Saetta M., Mapp C., Fabri L.M. Mechanisms of occupational asthma. Clin. Exp. Allergy 1997; 27 (suppl. 1): 47–54.

45. Maestrelli P., del Prete G.F., de Carli M. et al. CD8 T cell clones producing interleukin 5 and interferon gamma in bronchial mucosa of patients with asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate. Scand. J. Work Environ. Hlth. 1994; 20: 376–381.

46. Saetta M., Di Stefano A., Maestrelli P. et al. Airway mucos al inflammation in occupational asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992; 145: 160–168.

47. Frew A.J., Chan H., Lam S., Chan1Yeung M. Bronchial inflammation in asthma due to western red cedar. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1995; 151: 340–344.

48. Day B.W., Jin R., Basalyga D.M. et al. Formation, solvol ysis and transcarbamoylation reactions of bis(s glu tathionyl) adducts of 2,4 and 2,6 diisocyanotoluene. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1997; 10: 424–431.

49. Elms J., Beckett P.N., Griffin P., Curran AD. Mechanisms of isocyanate sensitization. An in vitro approach. Toxicol in Vitro. 2001; 15: 631–634.

50. Quirce S, Sastre J. Occupational asthma. Allergy 1998; 53: 633–641.

51. Nicholson P.J., Cullinan P., Taylor A.J. et al. Evidence based guidelines for the prevention, identification and management of occupational asthma. Occup. Environ. Med. 2005; 62: 290–299.

52. Chang1Yeung M., Malo J.L. Natural history of occupation al asthma. In: Chang Yeung M., Bernstein I.L., Malo J.L., Bernstein D.I., eds. Asthma in the workplace and related disorders. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1999. 129–144.

53. Malo J.L., Ghezzo M., L'Archevegue J. et al. Is the clinical history a satisfactory mean of diagnosis occupational asth ma? Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1991; 143: 528–532.

54. Gilbert R., Auchncloss J.H. Post test probability of asthma following methacholine challenge. Chest 1990; 97: 562–565.

55. Mapp C.E., dal Vecchio L., Boschetto P. et al. Toluene diisocyanate induced asthma without airway hyperrespon siveness. Eur. Respir. J. 1996; 68: 89–95.

56. Sastre J., Fernandez1Nieto M., Novalbos A. et al. Need for monitoring nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness before and after isocyanate inhalation challenge. Chest 2003; 123: 1276–1279.

57. Vandenplas O., Delwiche J.P., Jamart J., van de Weyer R. Increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness as an early marker of bronchial response to occupational agents during inhalation challenges. Thorax 1996; 51: 472–478.

58. Ruef F., Thomas P., Reissig G., Przybilla B. Natural rubber latex allergy in patients not intensely exposed. Allergy 1998; 53: 445–449.

59. Tee R.D., Cullinan P., Welch J. et al. Specific IgE to iso cyanates: a useful diagnostic role in occupational asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1998; 101: 709–715.

60. Burge S., Moscato G. Physiological assessment: serial measurements of lung function. In: Bernstein I.L., Chang Yeung M., Malo J.L. et al., eds. Asthma in the workplace. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1993. 193–210.

61. Leroyer C., Perfetti L., Trudeau C. et al. Comparison of serial monitoring of peak expiratory flow and FEV 1 in the diagnosis of occupational asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1998; 158: 827–832.

62. Perrin B., Lagier F., L'Archeveque J. et al. Occupational asthma: validity of monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates and non allergic bronchial responsiveness as compared to specific inhalation challenge. Eur. Respir. J. 1992; 5: 40–48.

63. Anees W., Gannon P.F., Huggins V. et al. Effect of peak expiratory flow data quantity on diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in occupational asthma. Eur. Respir. J. 2004; 23: 730–734.

64. Gannon P.F.G., Newton D.T., Belcher J. et al. Development of OASYS 2: a system for the analysis of serial measure ment of peak expiratory flow in workers with suspected occupational asthma. Thorax 1996; 51: 484–489.

65. Cartier A., Malo J.L. Occupational challenge tests. In: Bernstein I.L., Chang Yeung M., Malo J.L. et al, eds. Asthma in the workplace. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1993. 211–233.

66. Sastre J., Quirce S., Novalbos A. et al. Occupational asth ma induced by cephalosporins. Eur. Respir. J. 1999; 13: 1189–1191.

67. Hammad Y.Y., Rando R.J., Abdel1Kader H. Considerations in the design and use of human inhalation challenge delivery systems. Folia Allergol. Immunol. Clin. 1985; 32: 37–44.

68. Vandesplas O., Malo J.L., Cartier A. et al. Closed circuit methodology for inhalation challenge test with isocianates. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992; 145: 582–587.

69. Orriols R., Drobnic S., Munoz X. et al. Asma ocupacional por isocianatos: estudio de 21 pacientes. Med. Clin. (Barc.) 1999; 113: 659–662.

70. Taivainen A.I., Tukiainen H.O., Terho E.O., Husman K.R. Powered dust respirator helmets in the prevention of occu pational asthma among farmers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Hlth 1998; 24: 503–507.

71. Obase Y., Shimoda T., Mitsuta K. et al. Two patients with occupational asthma who returned to work with dust res pirators. Occup. Environ. Med. 2000; 57: 62–64.

72. Marabini A., Siracusa A., Stopponni R. et al. Outcome of occupational asthma in patients with continuous exposure: a 3 year longitudinal study during pharmacologic treat ment. Chest 2003; 124: 2372–2376.

73. Dewitte J.D., Chan1Yeung M., Malo J.L. Medicolegal and compensation aspects of occupational asthma. Eur. Respir. J. 1994; 7: 969–980.

74. Vandesplas O., Toren K., Blanc P.D. Health and socioeco nomic impact of work related asthma. Eur. Respir. J. 2003; 22: 689–697.

75. Chan1Yeung M. Assessment of asthma in the workplace. ACCP consensus statement. American College of Chest Physicians. Chest 1995; 108: 1084–1117.

76. Lemiere C., Malo J.1L., Boulet L. Reactive airways dys function syndrome due to chlorine: sequential bronchial biopsies and functional assessment. Eur. Respir. J. 1997; 10: 241–244.

77. Chester E., Kaimal J., Payne C.B. Jr., Kohn P.M. Pulmonary injury following exposure to chlorine gas. Possible beneficial effects of steroid treatment. Chest 1977; 72: 247–250.

78. Chan-Yeung M., Lam S., Kennedy S.M., Frew A. Persistent asthma after repeated exposure to high concentrations of gases in pulmills. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1994; 149: 1676–1680.

79. Bherer L., Cushman R., Courteau J.P. et al. Survey of con struction workers repeatedly exposed to chlorine over a three to six month period in a pulpmill: II. Follow up to affected workers by questionnaire, spirometry, and assess ment of bronchial responsiveness 18 to 24 months after exposure ended. Occup. Environ. Med. 1994; 51: 225–228.

80. Gautrin D., Leroyer C., Infante1Rivard C. et al. Longitudinal assessment of airway caliber and responsive ness in workers exposed to chlorine. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 160: 1232–1237.

81. Blanc P.D., Galbo M., Hiatt P., Olson K.R. Morbidity fol lowing acute irritant inhalation in a population based study. J. A. M. A. 1991; 266: 664–669.

82. Niven R.M.l., Pickering C.A.C. Byssinosis: a review. Thorax 1996; 51: 632–637.

83. Pickering C.A.C. Byssinosis. In: Hendrick D.J., Sherwood Burge P., Beckett W.S., Churg A., eds. Occupational dis orders of the lung: recognition, management and preven tion. Edinburgh: Saunders; 2002. 46–47.

84. Fishwick D., Fletcher A.M., Pickering C.A.C., Niven R.M.L., Faragher E.B. Lung function, bronchial reactivity, atopic status and dust exposure in Lancashire mill opera tives. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992; 145: 1103–1108.

85. Glindmeyer H.W., Lefante J.J., Jones R.N., Rando R.J., Weill H. Cotton dust and across shift change in FEV1 , as predictors of annual change in FEV1 . Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1994; 149: 584–590.

86. Christiani D.C., Wang X.1R., Pan L.1D. et al. Longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in cotton textile workers. A 15 year follow up study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001; 163: 847–853.

87. WHO. Recommended health based occupational expo sure limits for selected vegetables dust. Report of a WHO study group. (Techn. Rep. Ser. 684). Geneva: WHO; 1983.

88. Chan1Yeung M., Emerson D.A., Kennedy S.M. The impact of grain dust on respiratory health. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1992; 145: 476–487.

89. Magarolas R., Monso E., Aguilar X. et al. Prevalencia y fac tores de riesgo de sintomas respiratorios en la agricultura y la ganaderia. Med. Clin. (Barc.) 2000; 114: 685–689.

90. Borghetti C., Magarolas R., Badorrey I. et al. Sensibili zacion y asma ocupacional en los avicultores. Med. Clin. (Barc.) 2002; 118: 251–255.

91. Eduard W, Douwes J, Omenaas E., Heederick D. Do farm ing exposures cause or prevent asthma? Results from a study of adult Norwegian farmers. Thorax 2004; 59: 381–386.

92. Soyseth V., Kongerud J., Ekstrand J., Boe J. Relation between exposure to fluoride and bronchial responsiveness in aluminium potroom workers with work related asthma like symptoms. Thorax 1994; 49: 984–989.

93. Tarlo S.M., Leung K., Broder I. et al. Asthmatic subjects symptomatically worse at work: prevalence and character ization among a general asthma clinic population. Chest 2000; 118: 1309–1314.

94. Gibson P.G., Fujimura M., Niimi A. Eosinophilic bronchi tis: clinical manifestations and implication for treatment. Thorax 2002; 57: 178–182.

95. Quirce S. Eosinophilic bronchitis in the workplace. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2004; 4: 87–91.

96. Quirce S., Fernandez1Nieto M., De Miguel J., Sastre J. Chronic cough due to latex induced eosinophilic bronchi tis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2001; 108: 143.

97. Ryu J.H., Myers J.L., Swensen S.J. Bronchiolar disorders. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003; 168: 1277–1292.

98. Orriols R., Bravo C. Bronquiolitis obliterante: dificultades de la definicion. Arch. Bronconeumol. 1995; 31: 1–2.

99. Kreiss K., Gomaa A., Kullman G. et al. Clinical bronchioli tis obliterans in workers at a microwavepopcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002; 347: 330–338.

100. Boag A.H., Colby T.V., Fraire A.E. et al. The pathology of interstitial lung disease in nylon flock workers. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 1999; 23: 1539–1545.

101. Orriols R., Manresa J.M., Aliaga J.L.L. et al. Mollusk shell hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 1990; 113: 80–81.

102. Morell F., Roger A., Cruz M.J. et al. Suberosis. Clinical study and new etiologic agents in a series of eight patients. Chest 2003; 124: 1145–1152.

103. Patel A.M., Ryu J.H., Reed C.E. Hypersensitivity pneu monitis: current concepts and future questions. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2001; 108: 661–670.

104. Orriols R., Aliaga J.L.L., Anto J.M. et al. High prevalence of mollusc shell hypersensitivity pneumonitis in nacre fac tory workers. Eur. Respir. J. 1997; 10: 780–786.

105. Lacasse Y., Selman M., Costabel U. et al. Clinical diagno sis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003; 168: 952–958.

106. Newman K.B., Mason U.G., Schmaling K.B. Clinical fea tures of vocal cord dysfunction. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1995; 152: 1382–1386.

107. Perkner J.J., Fennelly K.P., Balkissoon R. et al. Irritant associated vocal cord dysfunction. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 1998; 40: 136–143.

108. Cullen M.R. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivi ties: an overview. Occup. Med. 1987; 2: 655–661.

109. Lesage J., Perrault G. Environmental monitoring of chem ical agents. In: Bernstein I.L., Chan Yeung M., Malo J. L., Bernstein D.I., eds. Asthma in the workplace. New York: Marcel Deckker; 1999. 257–277.

110. Available from: www.mtas.es/insht/mta

111. Available from: www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html

112. Available from: www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/index.html

113. Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo. Limites de exposicion profesional para agentes quimicos en Espana. Madrid: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo; 2003.

114. Reed C.E., Swanson M.C., Li J.T. Environmental moni toring of protein aeroallergens. In: Bernstein I.L., Chang Yeung M., Malo J.L., Bernstein D.J., eds. Asthma in the workplace. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.; 1999. 235–255.

115. Price J.A., Pollock I., Little S.A. et al. Measurement of air borne mite antigen in homes of asthmatic children. Lancet 1990; 336: 895–897.

116. Luczynska C.M., Li Y., Chapman M.D., Platts-Mills T.A.E. Airborne concentrations and particle size distribution of allergen derived from domestic cat (Felis domesticus). Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 1990; 141: 361–367.

117. Price J.A., Longbottom J.L. ELISA method for the meas urement of airborne levels of major laboratory animal allergens. Clin. Allergy 1988; 18: 95–107.

118. Lillienberg L., Baur X., Doekes G. et al. Comparison of four methods to assess fungal amylase in flour dust. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2000; 44: 427–433.

119. Raulf-Heimsoth M., Sander I., Chez Z. et al. Development of a monoclonal antibodybased sandwich ELISA for detection of the latex allergen Hev b 1. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2000; 123: 236–241.

120. Zahradnik E., Raulf1Heimsoth M., Bruning T. et al. Development of a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for quantification of phytase derived from Aspergillus niger [abstract]. In: Actas del exposure assessment in a changing environment congress. Utrecht, The Netherlands, June 2004. Utrecht; 2004. p. 49. 28–5.

121. Coligan J.E., Kruisbeek A.M., Margulies D.H. et al. Antibody detection and preparation. In: Coligan J.E., Kruisbeek A.M., Margulies D.H. et al., eds. Current pro tocols in immunology. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 1997.

122. Renstrom A., Gordon S., Hollander A. et al. Comparison of methods to assess airborne rat and mouse allergen levels II. Factors influencing antigen detection. Allergy 1999; 54: 150–157.

123. Renstrom A., Gordon S., Larsson P.H. et al. Antibody detection and preparation Comparison of a radioaller gosorbent (RAST) inhibition method and a monoclonal enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aeroal lergen measurement. Clin. Exp. Allergy 1997; 27: 1314–1321.

124. Cruz M.J., Rodrigo M.J., Anto J.M., Morell F. An amplified ELISAinhibition method for the measurement of airborne soybean allergens. Int. Arch. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2000; 122: 42–48.

125. Platts-Mills T.A., Sporik R.B., Wheatley L.M., Heymann P.W. Is there a dose response relationship between exposure to indoor allergens and symptoms of asthma? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1995; 96: 435–440.

126. Baur X. Are we closer to developing threshold limit values for allergens in the workplace? Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003; 90 (suppl.): 11–18.

127. Pizzichini E., Pizzichini M.M., Efthimiadis A. et al. Indices of airway inflammation in induced sputum: reproducibili ty and validity of cell and fluid phase measurements. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1996; 154: 308–317.

128. Lemiere C., Pizzichini M.M., Balkissoon R. et al. Diagnosing occupational asthma: use of induced sputum. Eur. Respir. J. 1999; 13: 482–488.

129. Girard F., Chaboilliez S., Cartier A. et al. An effective strat egy for diagnosing occupational asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2004; 170: 845–850.

130. Lemiere C., Chaboilliez S., Malo J.L., Cartier A. Changes in sputum cell counts after exposure to occupational agents: What do they mean? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2001; 107: 1063–1068.

131. Lemiere C. Non invasive assessment of airway inflamation in occupational lung diseases. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2002; 2: 109–114.

132. Kharitonov S., Alving K., Barnes P.J. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide measurements: recomendations. The European Respiratory Society Task Force. Eur. Respir. J. 1997; 10: 1683–1693.

133. American Thoracic Society. Recommendations for stan dardized procedures for the online and offline measure ment of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide and nasal nitric oxide in adults and children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 160: 2104–2117.

134. Kharitonov S., Barnes P.J. Exhaled markers of pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001; 163: 1693–1722.

135. Campo P., Lummus Z.L., Bernstein D. Advances in meth ods used in evaluation of occupational asthma. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 2004; 10: 142–146.

136. Montuschi P., Barnes P. Analysis of exhaled breath con densate for monitoring airway inflammation. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2002; 23: 232–237.

137. Hunt J. Exhaled breath condensate: an envolving tool for noninvasive evaluation of lung disease. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2002; 110: 28–34.

138. Bernstein I.L., Keskiene H., Malo J.1L. Medicolegal and compensation aspects. In: Bersntein I.L., Chang Yeung M., Malo J.L.,Bernstein D.J., eds. Ashtma in the work place. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1999. 279–297.

139. Available from: www.mtas.es/insh/ntp/ntp327.htm

140. Cuadro de enfermedades profesionales. Real Decreto 1995/1978 del 12 de mayo. BOE num. 25, de agosto de 1978.

141. Available from: www.mcs.es/Diseno/medioAmbient_salud_laboral.htm

142. WHO. International classification of impairment, disabil ities and handicap. Geneva: WHO; 1980.

143. WHO. CIDDM 2. Clasificacion internacional del fun cionamiento de la discapacidad y de la salud. 2001. Available from: www.who.ch/icidh

144. Available from: www.mtas.es/guia2003/texto/30/30.6.html

145. American Thoracic Society (ATS). Guidelines for the evaluation of impairment/disability in patients with asth ma. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1993; 147: 1056–1061.


Для цитирования:


. .. Клинические рекомендации по профессиональной астме. Пульмонология. 2007;(3):10-28. https://doi.org/10.18093/0869-0189-2007-0-3-10-28

For citation:


. .. Guidelines for occupational asthma. PULMONOLOGIYA. 2007;(3):10-28. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.18093/0869-0189-2007-0-3-10-28

Просмотров: 54


ISSN 0869-0189 (Print)
ISSN 2541-9617 (Online)