Расширенный поиск

ХОБЛ и сердечно-сосудистые заболевания: механизмы ассоциации

Полный текст:

Об авторах

С. Н. Авдеев
ФГУ НИИ пульмонологии Росздрава

Г. Е. Баймаканова
ФГУ НИИ пульмонологии Росздрава

Список литературы

1. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO workshop report. Last updated 2006.

2. Buist A.S., McBurnie M.A., Vollmer W.M. et al. International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet 2007; 370: 741–50.

3. Celli B.R., MacNee W., ATS/ERS Task Force. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. Eur. Respir. J. 2004; 23: 932–946.

4. Agusti A.G.N., Noguera A., Sauleda J. et al. Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur. Respir. J. 2003; 21: 347–360.

5. Hansell A.L., Walk J.A., Soriano J.B. What do chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients die from? A multiple cause coding analysis. Eur. Respir. J. 2003; 22: 809–814.

6. Camilli A.E, Robbins D.R, Lebowitz M.D. Death certificate reporting of confirmed airways obstructive disease. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133: 795–800.

7. Janssens J.P., Herrmann F., MacGee W., Michel J.P. Cause of death in older patients with anatomo-pathological evidence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema: a case-control study based on autopsy findings. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2001; 49: 571–576.

8. Rutten F.H., Moons K.G., Cramer M.J. et al. Recognising heart failure in elderly patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care: cross-sectional diagnostic study. Br. Med. J. 2005; 331: 1379.

9. Jousilahti P., Vartiainen E., Tuomilehto J., Puska P. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis and the risk of coronary disease. Lancet 1996; 348: 567–572.

10. Engstrom G., Wollmer P., Hedblad B. et al. Occurrence and prognostic significance of ventricular arrhythmia is related to pulmonary function: a study from "men born in 1914", Malmo, Sweden. Circulation 2001; 103: 3086–3091.

11. Huiart L., Ernst P., Suissa S. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in COPD. Chest 2005; 128: 2640–2646.

12. Rosengren A., Wilhelmsen L. Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1998; 27: 962–969.

13. Sidney S., Sorel M., Quesenberry C.P. Jr. et al. COPD and incident cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and mortality: Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Chest 2005; 128: 2068–2075.

14. Rutten F.H., Cramer M.J., Grobbee D.E. et al. Unrecognized heart failure in elderly patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur. Heart J. 2005; 26: 1887–1894.

15. Biernacki W., Flenley D.C., Muir A.L., MacNee W. Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular function in patients with COPD. Chest 1988; 94: 1169–1175.

16. Kohama A., Tanouchi J., Hori M. et al. Pathologic involvement of the left ventricle in chronic cor pulmonale. Chest 1990; 98: 794–800.

17. Hogg J.C. Pathophysiology of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet 2004; 364: 709–721.

18. Kjoller E., Kober L., Iversen K. et al. Importance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for prognosis and diagnosis of congestive heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur. J. Heart. Fail. 2004; 6: 71–77.

19. Rutten F.H., Cramer M.J., Lammers J.W. et al.Heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An ignored combination? Eur. J. Heart. Fail. 2006; 8: 706–711.

20. Olvey S.K., Reduto L.A., Stevens P.M. et al. First pass radionuclide assessment of right and left ventricular ejection fraction in chronic pulmonary disease. Effect of oxygen upon exercise response. Chest 1980; 78: 4–9.

21. Yamaoka S., Yonekura Y., Koide H. et al. Noninvasive method to assess cor pulmonale in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1987; 92: 10–17.

22. Schena M., Clini E., Errera D., Quadri A. Echo-Doppler evaluation of left ventricular impairment in chronic cor pulmonale. Chest 1996; 109: 1446–1451.

23. Boussuges A., Pinet C., Molenat F. et al. Left atrial and ventricular filling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An echocardiographic and Doppler study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med 2000; 162: 670–675.

24. Christianson L.C., Shah A., Fisher V.J. Quantitative left ventricular cineangiography in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Med. 1979; 66: 399–404.

25. Matthay R.A., Berger H.J., Davies R.A. et al. Right and left ventricular exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: radionuclide assessment. Ann. Intern. Med. 1980; 93: 234–239.

26. Slutsky R.A., Ackerman W., Karliner J.S. et al. Right and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Assessment by first-pass radionuclide angiography. Am. J. Med. 1980; 68: 197–205.

27. Song G.J., Oldershaw P.J. Left ventricular dysfunction in obstructive lung disease: an echocardiographic and angiographic study of cor pulmonale patients with decreased mitral E-F slope. Int. J. Cardiol. 1989; 25: 47–53.

28. Vizza C.D., Lynch J.P., Ochoa L.L. et al. Right and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with severe pulmonary disease. Chest 1998; 113: 576–583.

29. Jardin F., Gueret P., Prost J.F. et al. Twodimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1984; 129: 135–142.

30. Incalzi R.A., Pistelli R., Fuso L. et al. Cardiac arrhythmias and left ventricular function in respiratory failure from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1990; 97: 1092–1097.

31. Render M.L., Weinstein A.S., Blaustein A.S. Left ventricular dysfunction in deteriorating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1995; 107: 162–168.

32. Kline L.E., Crawford M.H., MacDonald W.J. et al. Noninvasive assessment of left ventricular performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1977; 72: 558–564.

33. Zema M.J., Masters A.P., Margouleff D. Dyspnea: the heart or the lungs? Differentiation at bedside by use of the simple Valsalva maneuver. Chest 1984; 85: 59–64.

34. Steele P., Ellis J.H., Van D. et al. Left ventricular ejection fraction in severe chronic obstructive airways disease. Am. J. Med. 1975; 59: 21–28.

35. Berger H.J., Matthay R.A., Loke J. et al. Assessment of cardiac performance with quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography: right ventricular ejection fraction with reference to findings in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 1978; 41: 897–905.

36. MacNee W., Xue Q.F., Hannan W.J. et al. Assessment by radionuclide angiography of right and left ventricular function in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Thorax 1983; 38: 494–500.

37. McCullough P.A., Hollander J.E., Nowak R.M. et al. Uncovering heart failure in patients with a history of pulmonary disease: rationale for the early use of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency department. Acad. Emerg. Med. 2003; 10: 198–204.

38. McKee P.A., Castelli W.P., McNamara P.M., Kannel W.B. The natural history of congestive heart failure: the Framingham study. N. Engl. J. Med. 1971; 285: 1441–1446.

39. Schocken D.D., Arrieta M.I., Leaverton P.E., Ross E.A. Prevalence and mortality rate of congestive heart failure in the United States. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1992; 20: 301–306.

40. Fletcher C., Peto R., Tinker C., Speizer F.E. The natural history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. New York: Oxford University Press; 1976.

41. Mannino D.M., Gagnon R.C., Petty T.L., Lydick E. Obstructive lung disease and low lung function in adults in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch. Intern. Med. 2000; 160: 1683–1689.

42. U.S. Surgeon General. The health consequences of smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2004.

43. Liao J.K. Beyond lipid lowering: the role of statins in vascular protection. Int J Cardiol 2002; 86: 5–18.

44. Gotto A.M. Jr., Farmer J.A. Pleiotropic effects of statins: do they matter? Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2001; 12: 391–394.

45. Anthonisen N.R., Skeans M.A., Wise R.A. et al. The effects of a smoking cessation intervention on 14.5-year mortality: a randomized clinical trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 2005; 142: 233–239.

46. Critchley J.A., Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review. J. A. M. A. 2003; 290: 86–97.

47. Dankner R., Goldbourt U., Boyko V., Reicher)Reiss H. Predictors of cardiac and non-cardiac mortality among 14,697 patients with coronary heart disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 2003; 91: 121–127.

48. He J., Vupputuri S., Allen K. et al. Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. N. Eng. J. Med. 1999; 340: 920–926.

49. Law M.R., Morris J.K., Wald N.J. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence. Br. Med. J. 1997; 315: 973–980.

50. Liao J.K. Beyond lipid lowering: the role of statins in vascular protection. Int. J. Cardiol. 2002; 86: 5–18.

51. Ambrose J.A., Barua R.S. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2004; 43: 1731–1737.

52. Bohadana A., Tecluscu D., Martinet Y. Mechanisms of chronic airway obstruction. Respir. Med. 2004; 98: 139–151.

53. Burke A., Fitzgerald G.A. Oxidative stress and smokinginduced vascular injury. Progr. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2003; 46: 79–90.

54. Puranik R., Celermajer D.S. Smoking and endothelial function. Progr. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2003; 45: 443–458.

55. Su Y., Cao W., Han Z., Block E.R. Cigarette smoke extract inhibits angiogenesis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells: The role of calpain. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 2004; 287: L794–L800.

56. Pittilo M.R. Cigarette smoking, endothelial injury and cardiovascular disease. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 2000; 81: 219–230.

57. De Leon S.F., Thurston G.D., Ito K. Contribution of respiratory disease to nonrespiratory mortality associations with air pollution. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2003; 167: 1117–1123.

58. Schwartz J. Air pollution and hospital admissions for heart disease in eight U.S. counties. Epidemiology 1999; 10: 17–22.

59. Katsouyanni K., Zmirou D., Spix C. et al. Shortterm effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data. The APHEA Project. Air Pollution Health Effects-A European Approach. Publ. Hlth Rev. 1997; 25: 7–18 [discus.: 19–28].

60. Samet J.M.,Dominici F., Curriero F.C. et al. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987–1994. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000; 343: 1742–1749.

61. Calverley P.M.A., Scott S. Is airway inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) a risk factor for cardiovascular events? J. Chron. Obstruct. Pulm. Dis. 2006, 3: 233–242.

62. Zureik M., Benetos A., Neukirch C. et al. Reduced pulmonary function is associated with central arterial stiffness in men. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001; 164: 2181–2185.

63. Beaty T.H., Newill C.A., Cohen B.H. et al. Effects of pulmonary function on mortality. J. Chronic. Dis. 1985; 38: 703–710.

64. Higgins M.W., Keller J.B. Predictors of mortality in the adult population of Tecumseh. Arch. Environ. Hlth 1970; 21: 418–424.

65. Speizer F.E., Fay M.E., Dockery D.W., Ferris B.G.Jr. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in six U.S. cities. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1989; 140: S49–S55.

66. Hole D.J., Watt G.C., Davey)Smith G. et al. Impaired lung function and mortality risk in men and women: findings from the Renfrew and Paisley prospective population study. Br. Med. J. 1996; 313: 711–715.

67. Schunemann H.J., Dorn J., Grant B.J. et al. Pulmonary function is a long-term predictor of mortality in the general population: 29-year follow-up of the Buffalo Health Study. Chest 2000; 118: 656–664.

68. Hospers J.J., Postma D.S., Rijcken B. et al. Histamine airway hyperresponsiveness and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cohort study. Lancet 2000; 356: 1313–1317.

69. Knuiman M.W., James A.L., Divitini M.L. et al. Lung function, respiratory symptoms, and mortality: results from the Busselton Health Study. Ann. Epidemiol. 1999; 9: 297–306.

70. Sin D.D., Wu L., Anderson J.A. et al. Inhaled corticosteroids and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2005; 60: 992–997.

71. Pauwels R.A., Buist A.S., Calverley P.M. et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop summary. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001; 163: 1256–1276.

72. Engstrom G., Hedblad B., Janzon L., Valind S. Respiratory decline in smokers and ex-smokers-an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. J. Cardiovasc. Risk. 2000; 7: 267–272.

73. Tockman M.S., Pearson J.D., Fleg J.L. et al. Rapid decline in FEV1 : a new risk factor for coronary heart disease mortality. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1995; 151: 390–398.

74. Sin D.D., Man S.F. Why are patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases? Circulation 2003; 107: 1514–1519.

75. Cherniack R.M., Cherniack L., Naimark A. Respiration in health and disease. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1972. 323–324.

76. Aliverti A., Macklem P.T. How and why exercise is impaired in COPD. Respiration (Herrlisheim) 2001; 68: 229–239.

77. Rappaport E. Cor pulmonale. In: Murray J.J., Nadel J.A., Mason R.M., Boushey H., eds. Textbook of respiratory medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. 1631–1648.

78. Medical Research Council. Long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy in chronic hypoxic cor pulmonale complicating chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Report of the Medical Research Council Working Party. Lancet 1981; 1 (8222): 681–686.

79. Kvale P.A., Cugell D.W., Anthonisen N.R. et al. Continuous or nocturnal oxygen therapy in hypoxemic chronic obstructive lung disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 1980; 93: 391–398.

80. Timms R.M., Khaja F.U., Williams G.W. Hemodynamic response to oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch. Intern. Med. 1985; 102: 29–36.

81. Weitzenblum E., Sautegeau A., Ehrhart M. et al. Long-term oxygen therapy can reverse the progression of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1985; 131: 493–498.

82. de Leeuw P.W, Dees A. Fluid homeostasis in chronic obstructive lung disease. Eur Respir J 2003; Suppl. 46: 33s–40s.

83. Burrows B., Kettel L.J., Niden A.H. et al. Patterns of cardiovascular dysfunction in chronic obstructive lung disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1972; 286: 912–918.

84. O'Donnell D.E., Revill S.M., Webb K.A. Dynamic hyperinflation and exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001; 164: 770–777.

85. Andreas S., Anker S.D., Scanlon P.D. et al. Neurohumoral activation as a link to systemic manifestations of chronic lung disease. Chest 2005; 128: 3618–3624.

86. Newton G.E., Azevedo E.R., Parker J.D. Inotropic and sympathetic responses to the intracoronary infusion of a beta2receptor agonist: a human in vivo study. Circulation 1999; 99: 2402–2407.

87. Hogg J.C., Chu F., Utokaparch S. et al. The nature of smallairway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 350: 2645–2653.

88. Gan W.Q., Man S.F., Senthilselvan A. et al. Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Thorax 2004; 59: 574–580.

89. Sin D.D., Man S.F. Why are patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases? The potential role of systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Circulation 2003; 107: 1514–1519.

90. Bang K.M., Gergen P.J., Kramer R. et al. The effect of pulmonary impairment on all-cause mortality in a national cohort. Chest 1993; 103: 536–540.

91. Wellenius G.A., Saldiva P.H., Batalha J.R. et al. Electrocardiographic changes during exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) particles in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Toxicol. Sci. 2002; 66: 327–335.

92. Wouters E.F.M. The systemic face of airway diseases: the role of C-reactive protein. Eur. Respir. J. 2006; 27: 877–879.

93. Gan W.Q., Paul Man S.F., Sin D.D. The interactions between cigarette smoking and reduced lung function on systemic inflammation. Chest 2005; 127: 558–564.

94. Wedzicha J.A., Seemungal T.A., MacCallum P.K. et al. Acute exacerbations of COPD are accompanied by elevations of plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Thromb. Haemost. 2000; 84: 210–215.

95. Gong H. Jr., Sioutas C., Linn W.S. Controlled exposures of healthy and asthmatic volunteers to concentrated ambient particles in metropolitan Los Angeles. Res. Rep. Hlth Eff. Inst. 2003; 118: 1–36 [discus.: 37–47].

96. van Eeden S.F., Tan W.C., Suwa T. et al. Cytokines involved in the systemic inflammatory response induced by exposure to particulate matter air pollutants (PM10). Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2001; 164: 826–830.

97. Suwa T., Hogg J.C., Quinlan K.B. et al. Particulate air pollution induces progression of atherosclerosis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2002; 39: 935–942.

98. Tan W.C., Qiu D., Liam B.L. et al. The human bone marrow response to acute air pollution caused by forest fires. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 161: 1213–1217.

99. Ballantyne C.M., Hoogeveen R.C., Bang H. et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, highsensitivity C-reactive protein, and risk for incident coronary heart disease in middle-aged men and women in the Aatherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Circulation 2004; 109: 837–842.

100. Blake G.J., Ridker P.M. C-reactive protein and other inflammatory risk markers in acute coronary syndromes. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2003; 41 (4, suppl. S): 37S–42S.

101. Blake G.J. Inflammatory biomarkers of the patient withmyocardial insufficiency. Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 2003; 9: 369–374.

102. Blankenberg S., Tiret L., Bickel C. et al. AtheroGene Investigators. Interleukin-18 is a strong predictor of cardiovascular death in stable and unstable angina. Circulation 2002; 106: 24–30.

103. Danesh J., Whincup P., Walker M. et al. Low grade inflammation and coronary heart disease: Prospective study and updated meta-analyses. Br. Med. J. 2000; 321: 199–204.

104. Koukkunen H., Penttila K., Kemppainen A. et al. C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α in the prognostic classification of unstable angina pectoris. Ann. Med. 2001; 33: 37–47.

105. Ridker P.M., Rifai N., Pfeffer M. et al. Elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and increased risk of recurrent coronary events after myocardial infarction. Circulation 2000; 101: 2149–2153.

106. Lind L. Circulating markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2003; 169: 203–214.

107. Ridker P.M., Rifai N., Rose L. et al. Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002; 347: 1557–1565.

108. Danesh J., Wheeler J.G., Hirschfield G.M. et al. C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the production of coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 350: 1387–1397.

109. Kinlay S., Selwyn A.P. Effects of statins on inflammation in patients with acute and chronic coronary syndromes. Am. J. Cardiol. 2003; 91 (suppl. 4A): 9B–13B.

110. Plutzky J. Inflammatory pathways in atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. Am. J. Cardiol. 2001; 88 (suppl. 8A): 10K–15K.

111. Verma S., Li S.H., Badiwala M.V. et al. Endothelin antagonism and interleukin-6 inhibition attenuate the proatherogenic effects of C-reactive protein. Circulation 2002; 105: 1890–1896.

112. Zwaka T.P., Homback V., Torzewski J. C-reactive proteinmediated low density lipoprotein update by macrophages: implications for atherosclerosis. Circulation 2001; 103: 1194–1197.

113. Wewers M.D. Cytokines and macrophages, In: Remick D.G., Friedland J.S., eds. Cytokines in health and disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 339–356.

114. Devaraj S., Xu D.Y., Jialal I. C-reactive protein increases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and activity in human aortic endothelial cells: implications for the metabolic syndrome and atherothrombosis. Circulation 2003; 107: 398–404.

115. Pasceri V., Willerson J.T., Yeh E.T. Direct proinflammatory effect of C-reactive protein on human endothelial cells. Circulation 2000; 102: 2165–2168.

116. Ridker P.M., Buring J.E., Cook N.R., Rifai N. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14719 initially healthy American women. Circulation 2003; 107: 391–397.

117. Pinto Plata V.M., Mullerova H., Toso J.F. et al. C-reactive protein in patients with COPD, control smokers, and nonsmokers. Thorax 2006; 61: 23–28.

118. Drost E.M., Skwarski K.M., Sauleda J. et al. Oxidative stress and airway inflammation in severe exacerbations of COPD. Thorax 2005; 60: 293–300.

119. Wedzicha J.A., Donaldson G.C. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir. Care 2003; 48: 1204–1214.

120. Grimes D.S., Hindle E., Dyer T. Respiratory infection and coronary heart disease: progression of a paradigm.Quart. J. Med. 2000; 93: 375–383.

121. Leinonen M., Saikku P. Infections and atherosclerosis. Scand. Cardiovasc. J. 2000; 34: 12–20.

122. Grayston J.T., Kronmal R.A., Jackson L.A. et al. ACES Investigators. Azithromycin for the secondary prevention of coronary events. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005; 352: 1637–1645.

123. Kiechl S., Werner P., Egger G. et al. Active and passive smoking, chronic infections, and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis. Prospective results from the Bruneck study. Stroke 2002; 33: 2170–2176.

124. Sauerwein H.P., Schols A.M. Glucose metabolism in chronic lung disease. Clin. Nutr. 2002; 21: 367–371.

125. Kemppainen J., Tsuchida H., Stolen K. et al. Insulin signalling and resistance with chronic heart failure. J. Physiol. 2003; 550: 305–315.

126. Sin D.D., Anthonisen N.R., Soriano J.B., Agusti A.G. Mortality in COPD: role of comorbidities. Eur. Respir. J. 2006; 28: 1245–1257.

Для цитирования:

Авдеев С.Н., Баймаканова Г.Е. ХОБЛ и сердечно-сосудистые заболевания: механизмы ассоциации. Пульмонология. 2008;(1):5-13.

For citation:

Avdeev S.N., Baymakanova G.E. COPD and cardiovascular diseases: mechanisms of association. PULMONOLOGIYA. 2008;(1):5-13. (In Russ.)

Просмотров: 15

ISSN 0869-0189 (Print)
ISSN 2541-9617 (Online)