Расширенный поиск

Острая сердечная недостаточность: рекомендациипо диагностике и лечению

Полный текст:

Об авторе

Статья Редакционная


Список литературы

1. Remme W.J., Swedberg K. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure. Cur Heart J 2001: 22: 1527-1560.

2. Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute heart failure. Available at

3. Effect of prophylactic amiodarone on mortality after acute myocar!dial infarction and in congestive heart failure: meta!analysis of individual data from 6500 patients in randomised trials. Amiodarone Trials Meta!Analysis Investigators. Lancet 1997: 350: 1417-1424.

4. McCullough P.A., Philbin E.F., Spertus J.A. et al. Confirmation of a heart failure epidemic: findings from the Resource Utilization Among Congestive Heart Failure (REACH) study. J Am Coll Cordial 2002: 39: 60-69.

5. Cleland J.G., Swedberg K., Follath F et al. The EuroHeart Failure survey programme!a survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Part 1: Patient characteristics and diagnosis. Cur. Heart J. 2003: 24: 442-463.

6. Fox KF, Cowie MR, Wood DA et al. Coronary artery disease as the cause of incident heart failure in the population. Cur. Heart. J. 2001: 22: 228-236.

7. Al-Khadra AS, Salem DN, Rand WM et al. Warfarin anticoagulation and survival: a cohort analysis from the studies of left ventricular dysfunction. J. Am. Colt. Cardiol. 1998; 31: 749-753.

8. Berry С, Murdoch OR, McMurray JJ. Economics of chronic heart failure. Fur J Heart Fait 2001: 3: 283-291.

9. The treatment of heart failure. Task Force of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Cur. Heart J. 1997: 18: 736-753.

10. Adams KF, Jr., Zannad F. Clinical definition and epidemiology of advanced heart failure. Am. Heart J. 1998;135: S204-S215.

11. O'Connell JB. The economic burden of heart failure. Clin. Cardiol. 2000: 23: 1116-11110.

12. Stevenson R, Ranjadayalan K, Wilkinson P et al. Short and long term prognosis of acute myocardial infarction since introduction of thrombolysis. Brit. Med. J. 1993: 307: 349-353.

13. Roguin A, Behar D, Ben Ami H et al. Long-term prognosis of acute pulmonary oedema!an ominous outcome. Eur. J. Heart Fail. 2000: 2: 137-144.

14. Krumholz MH P, EM, Tu N et al. The treatment target in acute decompensated heart failure. Rev. Cordiovasc. Med. 2001; 2 (suppl. 2): S7-S12.

15. Krumholz HM, Chen J, Murillo J.E. et al. Admission to hospitals with on!site cardiac catheterization facilities: impact on long!term costs and outcomes. Circulation 1998: 98: 2010-2016.

16. Cowie MR, Mosterd A, Wood DA et al. The epidemiology of heart failure. Cur. Heart J. 1997: 18: 208-225.

17. McAlister FA, Lawson FM, Teo KK et al. A systematic review of randomized trials of disease management pro! grams in heart failure. Am. J. Med. 2001; 110: 378-384.

18. Krumholz HM, Vaccarino V, Ellerbeck EF et al. Determinants of appropriate use of angiotensin!converting enzyme inhibitors after acute myocardial jnfarction in persons > or = 65 years of age. Am. J. Cardiol. 1997: 79: 581-586.

19. Rich MW, Beckham V, Wittenberg С et al. A multidisciplinary intervention to prevent the readmission of elderly patients with congestive heart failure. N. EngI. J. Med. 1995: 333: 1190-1195.

20. Clinical assessment identifies hemodynamic profiles that predict outcomes in patients admitted with heart failure. J. Am. Call. Cardiol. 2003: 41: 1797-1804.

21. Grady KL, Dracub K, Kennedy G, Moser DK, Piano M, Stevensson LW. AHA Scientific Statement: Team management of patients with heart failure: a statement of health care professional from the cardiovascular nursing council of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2000: 1002: 2443-2456.

22. Nohria A, Lewis E, Stevenson LW. Medical management of advanced heart failure. J. A. M. A. 2002: 287: 628-640.

23. Killip Т, 3rd, Kimball JT. Treatment of myocardial infarction in a coronary care unit. A two year experience with 250 patients. Am. J. Cardiol. 1967; 20: 457-464.

24. Forrester JS, Diamond GA, Swan HJ. Correlative classification of clinical and hemodynamic function after acute myocardial infarction. Am. J. Cardiol. 1977: 39: 137-145.

25. Arnold JM, Braunwald E, Sandor Т et at. Inotropic stimulation of reperfused myocardium with dopamine: effects on infarct size and myocardial function. J. Am. Coil. Cardiol. 1985: 6: 1026-1034.

26. Bolli R. Basic and clinical aspects of myocardial stunning. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 1998: 40: 477-516.

27. Wijns W, Vatner SF, Camici PG. Hibernating myocardium. N. EngI. J. Med. 1998: 339: 173-181.

28. Marban E. Myocardial stunning and hibernation. The physiology behind the colloquialisms. Circulation 1991: 83: 681-688.

29. Bertrand ME, Simoons ML, Fox KA et al. Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST!segment elevation. Cur. Heart. J. 2002: 23: 1809-1840.

30. Van de Werf F, Ardissino D, Betriu A et al. Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation. The Task Force on the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. Cur Heart J 2003: 24: 28-66.

31. Fuster V, Ryden LE, Asinger RW et al. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines and Policy Conferences (Committee to develop guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation) developed in collaboration with the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Cur Heart J 2001: 22: 1852-1923.

32. Maisel AS, Krishnaswamy P, Nowak RM et al. Rapid measurement of B!type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002: 347: 161-167.

33. Dao Q, Krishnaswamy P, Kazanegra R et al. Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure in an urgent!care setting. J. Am. Coil. Cardiol. 2001: 37: 379-385.

34. Cowie MR, Jourdain P, Maisel A et al. Clinical applications of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) testing. Cur. Heart J. 2003: 24: 1710-1718.

35. Capomolla S, Pozzoli M, Opasich С et al. Dobutamine and nitroprus!side infusion in patients with severe congestive heart failure: hemodynamic improvement by discordant effects on mitral regurgitation, left atrial function, and ventricular function. Am Heart J 1997: 134: 1089-1098.

36. Tousignant CP, Walsh F, Mazer CD. The use of transesophageal echo!cardiography for preload assessment in critically ill patients. Anesth. Anals 2000: 90: 351-355.

37. Nagueh SF, Kopelen HA, Zoghbi WA. Feasibility and accuracy of Doppler echocardiographic estimation of pulmonary artery occlusive pressure in the intensive care unit. Am. J. Cardiol. 1995: 75: 1256-1262.

38. Nishimura RA, Tajik AJ. Determination of left!sided pressure gradients by utilizing Doppler aortic and mitral regurgitant signals: validation by simultaneous dual catheter and Doppler studies. J. Am. Coil. Cardiol. 1988: 11: 317-321.

39. Braunwald E, Antman EM, Beasley JW et al. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for the management of patients with unstable angina and non!ST!segment elevation myocardial infarction-summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina). J Am Coil Cardiol 2002: 40: 1366-1374.

40. Colucci WS, Elkayam U, Horton DP et al. Intravenous nesiritide, a natriuretic peptide, in the treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure. Nesiritide Study Group. New. EngI. J. Med. 2000: 343: 246-253.

41. Torre-Amione G, Young JB, Durand J et al. Hemodynamic effects of tezosentan, an intravenous dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in patients with class III to IV congestive heart failure. Circulation 2001: 103: 973-980.

42. Follath F, Cleland JG, Just H et al. Efficacy and safety of intravenous levosimendan compared with dobutamine in severe low-output heart failure (the LIDO study): a randomised double-blind trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 196-202.

43. Steimie AE, Stevenson LW, Chelimsky-Fallick С et al. Sustained hemodynamic efficacy of therapy tailored to reduce filling pressures in survivors with advanced heart failure. Circulation 1997, 96: 1165-1172.

44. Gottlicb SS, Brater DC. Thomas L et al. BG9719 (CVT-124), an A1 ade!nosine receptor antagonist, protects against the decline in renal function observed with diuretic therapy. Circulation 2002;105;1348-1353.

45. Shah MR, Stinnett SS, McNulty SE et al. Hemodynamics as surrogate end points for survival in advanced heart failure: an analysis from FIRST. Am. Heart J. 2001, 141: 908-914.

46. Boyd O, Grounds RM, Bennett ED. A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients. J. A. M. A. 1993; 270: 2699-2707.

47. Sandham JD, Hull RD, Brant RF et al. A randomized, controlled trial of the use of pulmonary!artery catheters in high-risk surgical patients. N. EngI. J. Med. 2003: 348: 5-14.

48. Rhodes A, Cusack RJ, Newman PJ et al. A randomised, controlled trial of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients. Intens. Care Med. 2002; 28: 256-264.

49. Mueller HS, Chatterjee K, Davis KB et al. ACC expert consensus document. Present use of bedside right heart catheterization in patients with cardiac disease. J. Am. Colt. Cardiol. 1998; 32: 840-864.

50. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F et al. Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. N. EngI. J. Med. 2001; 345: 1359-1367.

51. Rawles JM, Kenmure AC. Controlled trial of oxygen in uncomplicated myocardial infarction. Br Med J 1976: 1: 1121-1123.

52. Packer PM. Proposal for a new clinical end point to evaluate the efficacy of drugs and devices in the treatment of chronic heart failure. J Card Fail 2001: 7: 176-182.

53. Udelson JE, Smith WB, Hendrix GH et al. Acute hemodynamic effects of conivaptan, a dual V(1A) and V(2) vasopressin receptor antagonist, in patients with advanced heart failure. Circulation 2001: 104: 2417-2423.

54. Cuffe MS, Califf RM, Adams KF Jr. et al. Short!term intravenous mil!rinone for acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002: 287: 1541-1547.

55. Silver MA, Norton DP, Ghali JK et al. Effect of nesiritide versus dobutamine on short!term outcomes in the treat! ment of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. J Am Coil Cardiol 2002: 39: 798-803.

56. Fonarow GC, Stevenson LW, Walden JA et al. Impact of a comprehensive heart failure management program on hospital readmission and functional status of patients with advanced heart failure. J Am Coil Cardiol 1997: 30: 725-732.

57. Marik РЕ. Pulmonary artery catheterization and esophageal doppler monitoring in the ICU. Chest 1999: 116: 1085-1091.

58. Jardin F, Valtier B, Beauchet A et al. Invasive monitoring combined with two!dimensional echocardiographic study in septic shock. fntens Core Med 1994: 20: 550-554.

59. Gore JM, Goldberg RJ, Spodick DH et al. A community-wide assessment of the use of pulmonary artery catheters in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Chest 1987: 92: 721-727.

60. Zion MM, Balkin J, Rosenmann D et al. Use of pulmonary artery catheters in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Analysis of experience in 5,841 patients in the SPRINT Registry. SPRINT Study Group. Chest 1990: 98: 1331-1335.

61. Connors AF Jr., Speroff T, Dawson NV et al. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. SUPPORT Investigators. JAMA 1996: 276: 889-897.

62. Ivanov R, Alien J, Calvin JE. The incidence of major morbidity in critically ill patients managed with pulmonary artery catheters: a meta!analysis. Crit Care Med 2000: 28: 615-619.

63. Wilson J, Woods I, Fawcett J et al. Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery. Br Med J 1999: 318: 1099-1103.

64. Rasanen J, Heikkila J, Downs J et al. Continuous positive airway pressure by face mask in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Am J Cardiol 1985: 55: 296-300.

65. Bersten AD, Holt AW, Vedig AE et al. Treatment of severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema with continuous positive airway pressure delivered by face mask. N Engf J Med 1991: 325: 1825-1830.

66. Lin M, Yang YF, Chiang HT et at. Reappraisal of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Short!term results and long-term follow-up. Chest 1995: 107: 1379-1386.

67. Takeda S, Nejima J, Takano T et al. Effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on pulmonary edema complicating acute myocardial infarction. Jpn Circ J 1998: 62: 553-558.

68. Kelly CA, Newby DE, McDonagh ТА et al. Randomised controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure and standard oxygen therapy in acute pulmonary oedema; effects on plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations. Eur Heart J 2002: 23: 1379-1386.

69. Pang D, Keenan SP, Cook DJ et at. The effect of positive pressure airway support on mortality and the need for intubation in cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a systematic review. Chest 1998: 114: 1185-1192.

70. Masip J, Betbese AJ, Paez J et al. Non!invasive pressure support ventilation versus conventional oxygen therapy in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a randomised trial. 1-oncet 2000: 356: 2126-2132.

71. Sharon A, Shpirer I, Kaluski E et al. High!dose intravenous isosor!bide!dinitrate is safer and better than BiPAP venti! lation combined with conventional treatment for severe pulmonary edema. J Am Colt Cardiol 2000: 36: 832-837.

72. Mehta S, Jay GO, Woolard RH et al. Randomized, prospective trial of bilevel versus continuous positive airway pressure in acute pulmonary edema. Crit Care Med 1997: 25: 620-628.

73. Lee G, DeMaria AN, Amsterdam EA et al. Comparative effects of morphine, meperidine and pentazocine on cardiocirculatory dynamics in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Med 1976: 60: 949-955.

74. SamamaMM, Cohen AT, Darmon JY et al. A comparison ofenoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Prophylaxis in Medical Patients with Enoxaparin Study Group. N EngI J Med 1999: 341: 793-800.

75. Cotter G, Metzkor E, Kaluski E et al. Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low-dose furosemide versus high!dose furo!semide plus low!dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema. Lancet 1998: 351: 389-393.

76. Cohn JN, Franciosa JA. Vasodilator therapy of cardiac failure (second of two parts). N EngI J Med 1977: 297: 254-258.

77. Jain P, Massie BM, Gattis WA et al. Current medical treatment for the exacerbation of chronic heart failure resulting in hospitaliz!ation. Am Heart J 2003: 145: S3-S17

78. Reves JG, Erdmann W, Mardis M et al. Evidence for existence of intramyocardial steal. Adv Exp Med Biot 1977: 94: 755-760.

79. Colucci WS. Nesiritide for the treatment of decompensat! ed heart failure. J Cardiac Fail 2001: 7: 92-100.

80. Swedberg К, Held P, Kjekshus J et al. Effects of early administration of enalapril on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Results of the Cooperative New Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study II (CONSENSUS II). N EngI J Med 1992: 327: 678-684.

81. Ambrosioni E, Borghi C, Magnani B. The effect of the angiotensin!converting!enzyme inhibitor zofenopril on mortality and morbidity after anterior myocardial infarction. The Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-Term Evaluation (SMILE) Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1995: 332: 80-85.

82. Latini R, Tognoni G, Maggioni AP et al. Clinical effects of early angio!tensin!converting enzyme inhibitor treatment for acute myocardial infarction are similar in the presence and absence of aspirin: systematic overview of individual data from 96,712 randomized patients. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. J Am Coil Cardiol 2000: 35: 1801-1807.

83. Follath F. Do diuretics differ in terms of clinical outcome in congestive heart failure? Euro Heart J 1998; 19 (suppl. P): P5-P8.

84. Brater DC. Diuretic therapy. N Enyl J Med 1998: 339: 387-395.

85. Wilson JR, Reichek N, Dunkman WB et al. Effect of diuresis on the performance of the failing left ventricle in man. Am J Med 1981: 70: 234-239.

86. Lohnson W, Omiand T, Hall С et al. Neurohormonal activation rapidly decreases after intravenous therapy with diuretics and vasodilators for class IV heart failure. J Am Colt Cardiol 2002: 39: 1623-1629.

87. Brater DC. Resistance to loop diuretics. Why it happens and what to do about it. Drugs 1985: 30: 427-443.

88. Cotter G, Metzkor E, Kaluski E et al. Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low!dose furosemide versus high!dose furo!semide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema [see comments]. Lancet 1998: 351: 389-393.

89. Gardtman M, Waagstein L, Karlsson T et al. Has an intensified treatment in the ambulance of patients with acute severe left heart failure improved the outcome? Eur J Emery Meet 2000: 7: 15-24.

90. Sacchetti A, Ramoska E, Moakes ME et al. Effect of ED management on ICU use in acute pulmonary edema. Am J Emery Med 1999: 17: 571-574.

91. Kramer WG, Smith WB, Ferguson J et al. Pharmacodynamics of tor!semide administered as an intravenous injection and as a continuous infusion to patients with congestive heart failure. J Clin Pharmacol 1996: 36: 265-270.

92. Lahav M, Regev A, Ra'anani P et al. Intermittent administration of furosemide vs continuous infusion preceded by a loading dose for congestive heart failure. Chest 1992: 102: 725-731.

93. Pivac N, Rumboldt Z, Sardelic S et al. Diuretic effects of furosemide infusion versus bolus injection in congestive heart failure, (nt J Clin Pharmacol Res 1998: 18: 121-128.

94. van Meyel J.J, Smits P., Dormans T et al. Continuous infusion of furosemide in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure and diuretic resistance. J. Intern. Med. 1994: 235: 329-334.

95. Channer K.S, McLean K.A, Lawson-Matthew P. et al. Combination diuretic treatment in severe heart failure: a randomised controlled trial. Br. Heart. J. 1994: 71: 146-150.

96. Dormans TP, Gerlag PG, Russel FG et al. Combination diuretic therapy in severe congestive heart failure. Drugs 1998: 55: 165-172.

97. Ellison DH. Diuretic therapy and resistance in congestive heart failure. Cardiology 2001: 96: 132-143.

98. Kiyingi A, Field MJ, Pawsey CC et al. Metolazone in treatment of severe refractory congestive cardiac failure. Lancet 1990: 335: 29-31.

99. van Vliet AA, Donker AJ, Nauta JJ et al. Spironolactone in congestive heart failure refractory to high!dose loop diuretic and low!dose angiotensin!converting enzyme inhibitor. Am J Cardiol 1993;71: 21A-28A.

100. Cotter G, Weissgarten J, Metzkor E et al. Increased toxicity of high!dose furosemide versus low-dose dopamine in the treatment of refractory congestive heart failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997: 62: 187-193.

101. Kramer BK, Schweda F, Riegger GA. Diuretic treatment and diuretic resistance in heart failure. Am J Med 1999: 106: 90-96.

102. Neuberg GW, Miller AB, O'Connor CM et al. Diuretic resistance predicts mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Am Heart J. 2002: 144: 31-38.

103. Wakelkamp M., Alvan G., Gabrielsson J. et al. Pharmacodynamic modeling of furosemide tolerance after multiple intravenous administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996: 60: 75-88.

104. Dormans TP, van Meyel JJ, Gerlag PG et al. Diuretic efficacy of high dose furosemide in severe heart failure: bolus injection versus continuous infusion. J Am Coil Cardiot 1996: 28: 376-382.

105. Maxwell AP, Ong HY, Nicholls DP. Influence of progressive renal dysfunction in chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2002: 4: 125-10.

106. Marik PE, Kussman BD, Lipman J et al. Acetazolamide in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients. Heart Lung 1991: 20: 455-459.

107. Sharpe N. Beta-blockers in heart failure. Future directions. Eur Heart J 1996; 17 (Suppl. B): 39-42.

108. Furberg CD. Overview of completed sudden death trials: US experience. Cardiology 1987; 74 (Suppl. 2): 24-31.

109. Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J et at. Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardi!ovasc Dis 1985: 27: 335-371.

110. Herlitz J, Waagstein F, Lindqvist J et al. Effect of metoprolol on the prognosis for patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction and indirect signs of congestive heart failure (a subgroup analysis of the Goteborg Metoprolol Trial). Am J Cardiol 1997; 80: 40J-44J.

111. Herlitz J, Elmfeldt D, Hjalmarson A et at. Effect of metoprolol on indirect signs of the size and severity of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1983: 51: 1282-1288.

112. WitchitzS, Cohen-Solal A, Dartois N et al. Treatment of heart failure with celiprolol, a cardioselective beta blocker with beta!2 agonist vasodilatory properties. The CELICARD Group. Am J Cardiol 2000: 85: 1467-1471.

113. Held PH, Corbeij HM, Dunselman P et al. Hemodynamic effects of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. A randomized, placebo!controlled multicenter study Am J Cardiol 1985;56: 47G-54G.

114. Katz AM. Potential deleterious effects of inotropic agents in the therapy of chronic heart failure. Circulation 1986: 73: 111184-11190.

115. Packer M. The development of positive inotropic agents for chronic heart failure: how have we gone astray? J Am Colt Cardiol 1993;22: 119A-126A.

116. O'Connor CM, Gattis WA, Uretsky BF et al. Continuous intravenous dobutamine is associated with an increased risk of death in patients with advanced heart failure: Insights from the Flolan International Randomized Survival Trial (FIRST). Am Heart J 1999: 138: 78-86.

117. Thackray S, Easthaugh J, Freemantle N et al. The effectiveness and relative effectiveness of intravenous inotropic drugs acting through the adrenergic pathway in patients with heart failure-a meta!regression analysis. 2002: 4: 515-529.

118. Goldberg LI, McDonald RH, Jr., Zimmerman AM. Sodium diuresis produced by dopamine in patients with congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1963: 269: 1060-1064.

119. Colucci WS, Wright RF, Braunwald E. New positive inotropic agents in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Mechanisms of action and recent clinical developments. 1. N Engl J Med 1986: 314: 290-299.

120. Maskin CS, Ocken S, Chadwick В et al. Comparative systemic and renal effects of dopamine and angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibition with enalapril in patients with heart failure. Circulation 1985: 72: 846-852.

121. MetraM, Missale С, SpanoPF et al. Dopaminergic drugs in congestive heart failure: hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to ibopamine, dopamine, and dihydroergotoxine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1995: 25: 732-740.

122. Leier CV, Binkley PF. Parenteral inotropic support for advanced congestive heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1998: 41: 207-224.

123. Fowler MB, Laser JA, Hopkins GL et al. Assessment of the beta-adrenergic receptor pathway in the intact failing human heart: progressive receptor down!regulation and subsensitivity to agonist response. Circulation 1986: 74: 1290-1302.

124. Feldman MD, Copelas L, Gwathmey JK et al. Deficient production of cyclic AMP: pharmacologic evidence of an important cause of contractile dysfunction in patients with end-stage heart failure. Circulation 1987: 75: 331-339.

125. Colucci WS, Denniss AR, Leatherman GF et at. Intracoronary infusion of dobutamine to patients with and without severe congestive heart failure. Dose-response relationships, correlation with circulating catechol! amines, and effect of phosphodiesterase inhibition. J Ctin Invest 1988: 81: 1103-1110.

126. Colucci WS, Wright RF, Jaski BE et al. Milrinone and dobutamine in severe heart failure: differing hemodynamic effects and individual patient responsiveness. Circulation 1986: 73: 11175-11183.

127. Galley HF. Renal!dose dopamine: will the message now get through? Loncet 2000: 356: 2112-2113.

128. Lowes BD, Tsvetkova T, Eichhorn EJ et at. Milrinone versus dobutamine in heart failure subjects treated chronically with carvedilol. Int J Cardiol 2001: 81: 141-149.

129. Metra M, Nodari S, D'Aloia A et al. Beta!blocker therapy influences the hemodynamic response to inotropic agents in patients with heart failure: a randomized comparison of dobutamine and enoxi!mone before and after chronic treatment with metoprolol or carvedilol. J Am Coil Cardiol 2002: 40: 1248-1258.

130. Gilbert ЕМ, Hershberger RE, Wiechmann RJ et al. Pharmacologic and hemodynamic effects of combined beta-agonist stimulation and phosphodiesterase inhibition in the failing human heart. Chest 1995: 108: 1524-1532.

131. Levine ТВ, Levine AB, Elliott WG et at. Dobutamine as bridge to angiotensin!converting enzyme inhibitor!nitrate therapy in end!stage heart failure. Clin Cardiol 2001: 24: 231-236.

132. Caldicott LD, Hawley K, Heppell R et al. Intravenous enoximone or dobutamine for severe heart failure after acute myocardial infarc!tion: a randomized double-blind trial. Eur Heart J 1993: 14: 696-700.

133. Burger AJ, Horton DP, LeJemtel Tet al. Effect of nesiritide (B-type natriuretic peptide) and dobutamine on ventricular arrhythmias in the treatment of patients with acutely decompensated congestive heart failure: the PRECEDENT study. Am Heart J 2002; 144: 1102-1108.

134. Schuiz R, Rose J, Martin С et al. Development of short-term myocardial hibernation. Its limitation by the severity of ischemia and ino!tropic stimulation. Circulation 1993;88: 684-695.

135. Colucci WS, Wright RF, Braunwald E. New positive inotropic agents in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Mechanisms of action and recent clinical developments. 2. N EngI J Med 1986;314: 349-358.

136. Bohm M, Deutsch HJ, Hartmann D et al. Improvement of postrecep!tor events by metoprolol treatment in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coil Cordial 1997: 30: 992-996.

137. Loh E, Elkayam U, Cody R et al. A randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous milrinone and intravenous nitroglycerin in patients with advanced heart failure. J Card Fail 2001; 7: 114-121.

138. Kivikko M, Lehtonen L, Colucci WS. Sustained hemodynamic effects of intravenous levosimendan. Circulation 2003: 107: 81-86.

139. Innes CA, Wagstaff AJ. Levosimendan: A review of its use in the management of acute decompensated heart failure. Drugs 2003;63: 2651-2671.

140. Nieminen MS, Lilleberg J, Leikola-Pelho Т et al. Dose related responses of a new calcium!sensitizer, simendan, in man. Eur Heart J 1992;13: P1440.

141. Nieminen MS, Akkila J, Hasenfuss G et nl. Hemodynamic and neuro-humoral effects of continuous infusion of levosimendan in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coil Cardioi 2000; 36: 1903-1912.

142. Slawsky MT, Colucci WS, Gottlieb SS et al. Acute hemodynamic and clinical effects of levosimendan in patients with severe heart failure. Study Investigators. Circulation 2000: 102: 2222-2227.

143. Cleland JG, McGowan J. Levosimendan: a new era for inodilator therapy for heart failure? Curr Opin Cardioi 2002; 17: 257-265.

144. Bohm M, Beuckelmann D, Brown L et al. Reduction of beta-adreno!ceptor density and evaluation of positive inotropic responses in isolated, diseased human myocardium. Eur. Heart J. 1988,9: 844-852.

145. Bohm M, La Rosee K, Schmidt U et al. Force!frequency relationship and inotropic stimulation in the nonfailing and failing human myocardium; implications for the medical treatment of heart failure. Clin Invest 1992;70: 421-425.

146. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. The Digitalis Investigation Group. New Engi J Med 1997: 336: 525-533.

147. Hood WBJr, DansAL, Guyatt GH et al. Digitalis for treat! ment of congestive heart failure in patients in sinus rhythm. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004 Issue 4.

148. Ratshin RA, Rackley CE, Russell RO. Jr. Hemodynamic evaluation of left ventricular function in shock complicating myocardial infarction. Circulation 1972: 45: 127-139.

149. Lee DC, Johnson RA, Bingham JB et al. Heart failure in outpatients: a randomized trial of digoxin versus placebo. N EngI J Med 1982,306: 699-705.

150. Rahimtoola SH, Sinno MZ, Chuquimia R et al. Effects of ouabain on impaired left ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction. N EngI J Med 1972: 287: 527-531.

151. Spargias KS, Hall AS, Ball SG. Safety concerns about digoxin after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1999; 354: 391-392.

152. Varonkov Y, Shell WE, Smirnov V et al. Augmentation of serum CPK activity by digitalis in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1977: 55: 719-727.

153. McClement BM AA. Value of signal!averaged electrocardiolography, radionuclide ventriculopathy, Holter monitoring and clinical variables for prediction of arrhythmic events in survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the thrombolytic era. J Am Coil Cardioi 1993: 21: 1419-1427.

154. Khand AL, Rankin AC, Kaye GC et al. Systematic review of the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure. Eur Heart J 2000: 21: 614-632.

155. Wong SC, Sanborn T, Sleeper LA et al. Angiographic findings and clinical correlates in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction; a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. SHould we emergently revascularize Occluded Coronaries for cardiogenic shocK? J Am Coil Cardioi 2000;36: 1077-1083.

156. Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Wedel H et at. Glycometabolic state at admission: important risk marker of mortality in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction: long!term results from the Diabetes and Insulin!Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (OIGAMI) study. Circulation 1999; 99: 2626-2632.

157. Hochman JS, Buller CE, Sleeper LA et al. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction-etiologies, management and outcome: a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. Should we emergently revascularize occluded Coronaries for cardiogenic shock? J Am Colt Cardioi 2000: 36: 1063-1070.

158. Menon V, Slater JN, White HD et al. Acute myocardial infarction complicated by systemic hypoperfusion without hypotension: report of the SHOCK trial registry. Am J Med 2000: 108: 374-380.

159. Sexton DJ, Spelman D. Current best practices and guidelines. Assessment and management of complications in infective endocarditis. Cardioi Clin 2003;21: 273-282.

160. Olaison L, Pettersson G. Current best practices and guidelines. Indications for surgical intervention in infective endo! carditis. Cardioi Clin 2003: 21: 235-251.

161. Houpikian P, Raoult D. Diagnostic methods. Current best practices and guidelines for identification of difficult-to-culture pathogens in infective endocarditis. Cardioi Clin 2003: 21: 207-217.

162. Towns ML, Reller LB. Diagnostic methods. Current best practices and guidelines for isolation of bacteria and fungi in infective endocarditis. Cardiot Clin 2003: 21: 197-205.

163. Conti CR. Endocarditis prophylaxis yes: endocarditis prophylaxis no. Clin Cardioi 2003: 26: 255-256.

164. Lengyel M, Fuster V, Keltai M et al. Guidelines for management of left!sided prosthetic valve thrombosis: a role for thrombolytic therapy. Consensus Conference on Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis. J Am Colt Cardioi 1997: 30: 1521-1526.

165. Bonow RO, Carabello B, de Leon AC et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease. Executive Summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease). J Heart Valve Dis 1998: 7: 672-707.

166. Alpert J.S. The thrombosed prosthetic valve: current recommendations based on evidence from the literature. J. Am. Colt. Cardiot. 2003: 41: 659-660.

167. Ozkan M., Kaymaz C., Kirma С. et al. Intravenous thrombolytic treatment of mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis: a study using serial transesophageal echocardiography. J. Am. Colt. Card. 2000: 35: 1881-1889.

168. Hering 0., Piper С., Horstkotte D. Management of prosthetic valve thrombosis. Eur. Heart J. 2001;3 (suppl. Q.): Q22-Q26.

169. Roudaut R., Lafitte S., Roudaut M.F. et al. Fibrinolysis of mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis: a single-center study of 127 cases. J. Am. Coil. Card. 2003: 41: 653-658.

170. Erbel R., Alfonso F., Boileau С. et al. Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection. Eur. Heart.; 2001: 22: 1642-1681.

171. Angeja B.G., Grossman W. Evaluation and management of diastolic heart failure. Circulation 2003: 107: 659-663.

172. Burkhoff D., Maurer M.S., Packer M. Heart failure with a normal ejection fraction: is it really a disorder of diastolic function? Circulation 2003: 107: 656-658.

173. Dalrymple-Hay M.J., Monro J.L., Livesey S.A. et al. Postinfarction ventricular septal rupture: the Wessex experience. Scmin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 1998: 10: 111-116.

174. Crenshaw B.S., Granger C.B., Birnbaum Y. et al. Risk factors, angiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with ventricular septal defect complicating acute myocardial infarction. GUSTO I (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and TPA for Occluded Coronary Arteries) Trial Investigators. Circulation 2000: 101: 27-32.

175. Boersma E., Poldermans D., Bax J.J. et al. Predictors of cardiac events after major vascular surgery; Role of clinical characteristics, dobutamine echocardiography, and beta-blocker therapy. JAMA 2001: 285: 1865-1873.

176. Anand I.S., Chugh S.S. Mechanisms and management of renal dysfunction in heart failure. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 1997: 12: 251-258.

177. Weinfeld M.S., Chertow G.M., Stevenson L.W. Aggravated renal dysfunction during intensive therapy for advanced chronic heart failure. Am. Heart J. 1999: 138: 285-290.

178. Hillege H.L., Girbes A.R., de Kam P.J. et al. Renal function, neurohormonal activation, and survival in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 2000: 102: 203-210.

179. Leier C.V., Dei Cas L., Metra M. Clinical relevance and management of the major electrolyte abnormalities in congestive heart failure: hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. Am Heart J 1994: 128: 564-574.

180. Agostoni P.G., Marenzi G.C., Sganzeria P. et al. Lung-heart interaction as a substrate for the improvement in exercise capacity after body fluid volume depletion in moderate congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1995: 76: 793-798.

181. Sharma A., Hermann D.D., Mehta R.L. Clinical benefit and approach of ultrafiltration in acute heart failure. Cardiology 2001: 96: 144-154.

182. Tepel M., van der Giet M., Schwarzfeld С. et al. Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine. N. Engl. J. Meet. 2000: 343: 180-184.

183. Briguori С., Manganelli F., Scarpato P. et al. Acetylcysteine and contrast agent-associated nephrotoxicity. J. Am. Coil. Cardiol. 2002: 40: 298-303.

184. Chu V.L., Cheng J.W. Fenoldopam in the prevention of contrast media!induced acute renal failure. Ann. Pharmacother. 2001; 35: 1278-1282.

185. Marenzi G., Marana I., Lauri G. et al. The prevention of radiocontrast!agent!induced nephropathy by hemofiltration. N. EngI. J. Med. 2003: 349: 1333-1340.

186. Kindman L.A., Vagelos R.H., Willson К. et al. Abnormalities of pulmonary function in patients with congestive heart failure, and reversal with ipratropium bromide. Am. J. Cardiol. 1994: 73: 258-262.

187. Kitchen J.B., 3rd, Kastor J.A. Pacing in acute myocardial infarction-indications, methods, hazards, and results. Cardiovasc. Clin. 1975; 7: 219-243.

188. Priori S.G., Aliot E., Blomstrom-Lundqvist С. et al. Task Force on Sudden Cardiac Death, European Society of Cardiology Europace 2002: 4: 3-18.

189. Monsieurs K.G., Handley A.J., Bossaert L.L. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2000 for Automated External Defibrillation. A statement from the Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation Working Group(1) and approved by the Executive Committee of the European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 2001: 48: 207-209.

190. Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Part 3: adult basic life support. The American Heart Association in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Circulation 2000: 102: 122-159.

191. Mathew J., Hunsberger S., Fleg J. et al. Incidence, predictive factors, and prognostic significance of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in congestive heart failure. Chest 2000: 118: 914-922.

192. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT!HF). Lancet 1999: 353: 2001-2007.

193. Pedersen O.D., Bagger H., Keller N. et al. Efficacy of dofetilide in the treatment of atrial fibrillation!flutter in patients with reduced left ventricular function: a Danish investigations of arrhythmia and mortality on dofetilide (diamond) substudy. Circulation 2001: 104: 292-296.

194. Blomstrom-Lundqvist С., Scheinman M.M., Aliot E.M. et al. ACC/AHA/ ESC guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias!executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Supraventricular Arrhythmias) developed in collaboration with NASPE!Heart Rhythm Society. J. Am. Colt. Cardiol 2003: 42: 1493-1531.

195. Hebbar A.K., Hueston W.J. Management of common arrhythmias: Part I. Supraventricular arrhythmias. Am Fam Physician 2002: 65: 2479-2486.

196. The pre!hospital management of acute heart attacks. Recommendations of a Task Force of the The European Society of Cardiology and The European Resuscitation Council, fur Heart J 1998: 19: 1140-1164.

197. Ellison K.E., Stevenson W.G., Sweeney М.О. et al. Catheter ablation for nemodynamically unstable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2000; 11: 41-44.

198. Pohjola-Sintonen S., Muller J.E., Stone P.H. et al. Ventricular septal and free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction: experience in the Multicenter Investigation of Limitation of Infarct Size. Am. Heart J. 1989: 117: 809-818.

199. London R.E. LS. The electrocardiographic signs of acute hemopericar!dium. Circulation 1962: 25: 780-786.

200. Lopez-Sendon J., Gonzalez A., Lopez de Sa E. et al. Diagnosis of sub!acute ventricular wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction: sensitivity and specificity of clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic criteria. J Am Coil Cardiol 1992: 19: 1145-1153.

201. Zamorano J., Moreno R., Almeria С. et al. Left ventricular free wall rupture during dobutamine stress echocardiography. Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 2002: 55: 312-314.

202. Deja M.A., Szostek J., Widenka К. et al. Post infarction ventricular septal defect: can we do better? Fur. J. Cardiothorac. Surs. 2000: 18: 194-201.

203. Ryan T.J., Antman E.M., Brooks N.H. et al. 1999 update: ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Executive Summary and Recommendations: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction). Circulation 1999: 100: 1016-1030.

204. Haley J.H., Sinak L.J., Tajik A.J. et al. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in acute coronary syndromes: an important cause of new systolic murmur and cardiogenic shock. Mayo Clin Proc 1999: 74: 901-906.

205. Thompson C.R., Buller C.E., Sleeper L.A. et al. Cardiogenic shock due to acute severe mitral regurgitation complicating acute myocardial infarction: a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. Should we use emergently revascularize Occluded Coronaries in cardiogenic shocK? J. Coil. Cardiol. 2000: 36: 1104-1109.

206. Tavakoli R., Weber A., Brunner-La Rocca H. et al. Results of surgery for irreversible moderate to severe mitral valve regurgitation secondary to myocardial infarction. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg 2002: 21: 818-824.

207. Waksman R., Weiss A.T., Gotsman M.S. et al. Intraaortic balloon coun!terpulsation improves survival in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Eur. Heart J. 1993: 14: 71-74.

208. Stevenson L.W., Kormos R.L. Mechanical Cardiac Support 2000: Current applications and future trial design. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 2001: 121: 418-424.

209. Goldstein D.J., Oz M.C., Rose E.A. Implantable left ventricular assist devices. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998: 339: 1522-1533.

210. Delgado D.H., Rao V., Ross H.J. et al. Mechanical circulatory assistance: state of art. Circulation 2002: 106: 2046-2050.

211. Bartlett R.H., Roloff D.W., Custer J.R. et al. Extracorporeal life support: the University of Michigan experience. J. A. M. A. 2000: 283: 904-908.

212. Rose E.A., Gelijns A.C., Moskowitz A.J. et al. Longterm mechanical left ventricular assistance for end-stage heart failure. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001: 345: 1435-1443.


Для цитирования:

Острая сердечная недостаточность: рекомендациипо диагностике и лечению. Пульмонология. 2006;(1):19-56.

Просмотров: 60

ISSN 0869-0189 (Print)
ISSN 2541-9617 (Online)